Dictionary of East European History since 1945

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rejected by most Hungarians. Not surprisingly, his party received less than 4 percent of the votes cast in the national elections in 1990.


Bibliography

Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979); Molnar Miklos , A Short History of the Hungarian Communist Party ( Boulder, CO, 1978).

Kallai, Gyula (1910-1986). Kallai, a journalist, joined the illegal Hungarian Communist party in the 1930s. During World War II, he participated in the resistance movement against the Germans, although he did not bear arms. In 1949, he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in Matyas Rakosi's (see Rakosi, Matyas) government. However, in 1951, he was put through a show trial and sentenced to a long prison term. In 1954, Kallai was rehabilitated, and in 1955 he was appointed minister of people's education. After 1956, he joined the newly formed Hungarian Socialist Workers party, the new organization replacing the old Communist party, and was appointed a member of the party's Politburo. In 1965, he replaced Janos Kadar (see Kadar, Janos) as prime minister of Hungary, but real power remained with Kadar, who retained the post of secretary general of the party.


Bibliography

Kovrig Bennett, Communism in Hungary from Kun to Kadar ( Stanford, CA, 1979).

Kardos, Laszlo (1920-1980). The child of a middle-class family, Kardos studied at Budapest University and came into contact with the populist movement in the 1930s. He became director of the Gyorffy, Collegium, a dormitory established for students who came from rural areas, in 1942. Kardos participated in the youth movement of the underground resistance. In 1945, he was appointed to the commission distributing land for poor peasants. He was also first secretary of the national committee of the people's colleges, an organization helping peasant youth to obtain a higher education.

In 1956, Kardos was among the organizers of the Petofi Circle, which consisted of intellectuals, many of them young party officials, who openly questioned the dictatorship of Matyas Rakosi (see Rakosi, Matyas). When the counterrevolutionary Kadar government came into power, Kardos was arrested. He was accused of smuggling the works of Imre Nagy (see Nagy, Imre), the prime minister of the Revolution, to Westem countries. He received a sentence of death, but it was changed into life imprisonment. In 1963, he was freed under the general amnesty. After he was released from jail, Kardos continued his sociological research.


Bibliography

Aczel Tamas, and Meray Tibor, The Revolt of the Mind ( London, 1961).

Kethly, Anna (1889-1976). Kethly, a leading social democratic politician during the years between the two World Wars, was a member of her party's parliamentary delegation. In 1944, she was imprisoned by the Germans, but survived and returned

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