Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

Next came the turn of the Polish socialists. The party's membership temporarily increased to 800,000, because masses of former Peasant party supporters now saw the Socialists as the only choice after the failure of the Peasant party. Soon the communists prevailed over the leaders of the Socialist party to purge their membership of "rightist" elements, and about 150,000 people were expelled from the party. Over 200 members of the middle-level leadership of the Socialist party were arrested and falsely charged with collaboration with the anti-communist resistance. The socialists had to acquiesce in the rejection of the Marshall Plan by Poland and were forced to withdraw from the Socialist International in March 1948. Finally, in December 1948, the Socialist party was forced to merge with the Polish Workers party, and the new party assumed the name of the Polish United Workers party. Power was, therefore, securely in communist hands by the end of 1948.


Bibliography

Bain Leslie, The Reluctant Satellites ( New York, 1960); Bliss Lane A.., I Saw Poland Betrayed ( New York, 1948); Bregman Aleksander, ed. Faked Elections in Poland as Reported by foreign Observers ( London, 1947); Gross Jan T., "Poland: from Civil Society to Political Nation," in Ivo Banac, ed. Eastern Europe in Revolution ( Ithaca, NY, 1992), pp. 56-71; Lewis Flora, The Polish Volcano ( London, 1959); Mikolajczyk Stanislaw, The Rape of Poand: Patterns of Soviet Aggression ( New York, 1948); Rothschild Joseph, The Return to Diversity. A Political History of Eastern Europe ( Oxford, 1992); Staar Richard F., Poland 1944-1962: The Sovietization of a Captive People ( New Orleans, LA, 1962).

Cultural Policies in Communist Poland. When the communists came into power in Poland, they considered their tasks to be twofold. They had to destroy a class-society based on precommunist values, and they had to create the proper conditions to mold a new generation of "socialist men," whose sole aim in life would be the building of a Soviet-style socialist society. Throughout four and a half decades of communist rule, these basic goals never changed, although tactics were adjusted to the changing situations.

Cultural policies were subordinated to these fundamental goals. The old values dominant in Polish society were diametrically opposite to Marxist-Leninist values. First among the old values was Polish nationalism. This was rooted in the centuries of struggles for Polish independence against the two great empires on Poland's borders, Germany and tsarist Russia. Other values included a highly developed sense of individualism and close identification with the Roman Catholic religion. All these values were underscored by the Western orientation of the Polish people, which was anathema to communists in Warsaw and Moscow. The memories of World War II that began with the Hitler-Stalin pact at the expense of Poland, the occupation of the country by the two powers in 1939, the Katyn massacre (see Katyn Woods Massacre) of Polish officers by the Soviet KGB, and the negative role of the Soviet army in the destruction of Warsaw in 1944 made the Soviet orientation of the Polish United Workers party suspect in the eyes of most Polish people.

In order to combat and, if possible, destroy these values, the communists promoted

-321-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dictionary of East European History since 1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 514

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.