Please update your browser

You're using a version of Internet Explorer that isn't supported by Questia.
To get a better experience, go to one of these sites and get the latest
version of your preferred browser:

Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

1985); Zinner Paul E., National Communism and Popular Revolt in Eastern Europe: A Selection of Documents on Events in Poland and Hungary ( New York, 1956).

Geremek, Bronislaw (1932- ). A young intellectual who had received his doctorate from Warsaw University, Geremek studied History and was employed as a researcher at the Historical Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He joined the intellectuals who founded the Committee for the Defense of Workers (KOR) (see Committee for the Defense of Workers), and in 1981, he became an advisor to Lech Walesa (see Walesa, Lech) and the Solidarity trade Union movement (see Solidarity Trade Union of Poland). When the communist government, headed by General Wojciech Jaruzelski (see Jaruzelski, Wijciech), declared martial law in December 1981, Geremek was arrested together with other members and leaders of Solidarity. He spent years in jail. Upon his release in 1985, he continued his oppositional activities. He remained an important member of the advisory group around Lech Walesa until the elections that brought Solidarity into the government.


Bibliography

Perski Stanislaw, and Flam H., eds. The Solidarity Sourcebook ( Vancouver, 1982); Rosenbrink John, Poland Challenges a Divided World ( Baton Rouge, LA, 1988).

Gierek, Edward (1913- ). Gierek began his career as a minor apparatchik in Silezia. By 1970, he had moved up the ladder of the nomenklatura and was appointed party leader of the region. He drew attention to himself by his relentless energy and organizational activity.

In 1970, he was chosen to replace Wladislaw Gomulka (see Gomulka, Wladislaw) as secretary general of the Polish United Workers party. Gierek's elevation was a maneuver on the part of the party leadership to appease a restive population, angered over sudden price increases. Gierek immediately rescinded the price increases and made other concessions. He crisscrossed the country, listening to complaints by the population and showing respect for simple people. He succeeded in calming down the people. Gierek reshuffled the communist leadership, enlarged the Central Committee of the Communist party and changed the personnel of the party secretariat and the Politburo.

The essential elements of communist dictatorship, however, remained unchanged. Central planning of the economy continued; the party's monopoly of political power remained intact, and intellectual life remained in bondage to Marxism-Leninism. The concept of class-struggle was not abandoned, but it was somewhat toned down. The party had made an effort to improve living standards without instituting major reforms in the economy but this just did not work. Gierek was intent on tightening discipline in the communist party. In the name of efficiency, some bureaucrats were removed from their posts. Higher industrial wages were introduced, food prices were lowered, and the compulsory delivery of foodstuffs was reduced to a minimum. Gierek also attempted to reach a modus vivendi with the Polish Catholic church. But

-332-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dictionary of East European History since 1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 514

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.