veloped by Soviet general staff officers. Military equipment used by the Warsaw Pact armies was also provided by the Soviet Union, although some of the heavy tanks and artillery were produced in East European factories. Their production was, however, usually supervised by Soviet technicians, mostly officers of the Soviet armed forces. Soviet garrisons were stationed in member countries with the exception of Romania. They assured the obedience of the military of these countries to Soviet command decisions. In case of war, each national component of the Warsaw Pact forces was assigned specific tasks according to the general strategy developed in Moscow.
In August 1968, Warsaw Pact forces were used by Leonid Brezhnev's government to intervene in Czechoslovakia, ending the Prague Spring of reforms. The subsequent declaration of the infamous Brezhnev doctrine proclaimed the right of the Soviet Union to intervene wherever "socialism was being threatened." In 1988, this doctrine was renounced by Brezhnev's successors.
After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the military organization of the Warsaw Pact was dissolved in March 1991. The political organization was turned into a consultative body, and even this was abandoned in 1992.
Johnson Ross A., The Warsaw Pact: Soviet Military Policy in Eastern Europe ( New Haven, CT, 1994).
Woytila, Karol, Cardinal (Pope John Paul II) (1920-). Woytila was born in Wadowicze, a town near Cracow, and completed high school there in 1938. He then entered the Jagellonian University of Cracow and studied Polish literature. During the Nazi occupation of Poland, Woytila worked at the Solvay Chemical factory in Cracow. In 1942, the future pope began his theological studies in a clandestine seminary (all schools and universities in Poland had been closed by the Nazis). At that point, he was sent to Rome to do studies there for two years. In 1948, he returned to Poland and was appointed an auxiliary priest in a small town. Between 1949 and 1951, he served at Saint Florian church in Cracow. Woytila then continued his studies in theology at the Jagellonian University and received his doctorate in 1953. He began lecturing at the theological seminary in Cracow. In 1954, he received a chair in social ethics at the Catholic University of Lublin. In 1958, Woytila became acting bishop of Ombi and auxiliary bishop of Cracow. Four years later, he became vicar capitular, or acting head of the diocese of Cracow. In 1963, he rose to the post of archbishop of Cracow, and in 1967 he was appointed cardinal by the pope. Between 1969 and 1978, Woytila was the deputy chairman of the conference of the Polish episcopate.
Woytila was one of the most active members of the Church Council Vatican I; he also visited the United States in 1969 and 1976. Woytila was often at odds with Cardinal Wyszynski (see Wyszynski, Cardinal Stefan) over issues of church government and relations with the communist state. He accepted the decisions of Vatican II un