Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

her younger brother Nicu, she, too, became a heavy drinker. Eventually she retreated into her private world, gathering pets and bottles in her home. She was pushed through her university studies but did not have the ability nor the inclination to complete her studies abroad. Her exams and written class work were usually done by tutors, and professors had to give her good grades if they wanted to keep their jobs.

In December 1989, she, too, was taken into protective custody together with her uncles, aunts and siblings, but only one of her pet dogs was mistreated. She was eventually released. Although she lost her job at the Institute of Nuclear Energy, where her mother placed her, she was not otherwise taken to task for her family's crimes.


Bibliography

Almond Mark, The Rise and Fall of Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu ( London, 1992); Galloway George, Downfall. The Ceausescus and the Romanian Revolution ( London, 1991).

Central Planning in Communist Romania. By 1949, the communist government, headed by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (see Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe), was in complete control of all political processes in Romania, but in other areas of life many of the old ways continued to prevail. This was especially true in economics where the nationalization of private property was completed, but agriculture, in spite of the collectivization drive that began in that year, was still outside the control of the Communist party.

In order to tighten control over every phase of social existence, a central planning office was set up under the direction of the Muscovite Vasile Luca (see Luca, Vasile) with orders to coordinate and centralize all economic activities. The office of planning received broad powers. Its orders carried the weight of law. It appointed industrial and collective farm managers, after approval by the appropriate party organs. It set work norms in industry for individual firms and compulsory delivery quotas for collective and surviving private peasants.

Copying Soviet methods, the central planning office introduced two one-year plans and a five-year plan that began in 1951. In the first two years of the five-year plan, investments grew by 34 percent of the national income, over 90 percent of which was spent in industrial development. Only 10 percent of the total was spent in agriculture, and minuscule amounts were devoted to new housing.

The dislocations caused by the investment policies threatened society with chaos. The ongoing collectivization drive forced large numbers of the rural folks to abandon their villages, and seek work in the new industries. However, apartments in the cities, where industry was located, were scarce. Commuting was hardly possible since the road system was not developed, and trains and buses were inadequate for the purpose. Thus, the industrial workers were housed in barracks and dormitories, hastily thrown together in the outskirts of cities, without the most elementary hygienic services. They usually travelled home once a month, but their wages often precluded even such pleasures.

In 1953, the fast five-year plan was abandoned. In March of that year, Joseph Sta

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Dictionary of East European History since 1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Maps vii
  • Preface ix
  • INTRODUCTION: EASTERN EUROPE 1
  • Albania 37
  • Bibliography 39
  • Bibliography 44
  • Bibliography 44
  • Bibliography 45
  • Bibliography 45
  • Bibliography 46
  • Bibliography 47
  • Bibliography 48
  • Bibliography 49
  • Bibliography 49
  • Bibliography 50
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  • Bibliography 53
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  • Bibliography 64
  • Bibliography 64
  • Bibliography 65
  • Bibliography 67
  • Bibliography 68
  • Bibliography 70
  • Bibliogrphy 71
  • Bibliography 71
  • Bibliography 72
  • Bibliography 75
  • Bibliography 76
  • Bibliography 77
  • Bibliography 77
  • Bibliography 79
  • Bulgaria 81
  • Bibliography 82
  • Bibliography 89
  • Bibliography 90
  • Bibliography 90
  • Bibliography 92
  • Bibliography 94
  • Bibliography 98
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  • Bibliography 110
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  • Bibliography 122
  • Bibliography 124
  • Bibliography 125
  • Bibliography 125
  • Czechoslovakia 127
  • Bibliography 127
  • Bibliography 133
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  • Bibliography 134
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  • Bibliography 141
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  • Bibliography 174
  • Bibliography 174
  • German Democratic Republic (east Germany) 175
  • Bibliography 175
  • Bibliography 180
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  • Bibliograhy 198
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  • Bibliography 230
  • Hungary 231
  • Bibliography 231
  • Bibliography 241
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  • Bibliography 300
  • Poland 301
  • Bibliography 301
  • Bibliography 310
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  • Bibliography 319
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  • Bibliography 369
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  • Bibliography 371
  • Bibliography 372
  • Bibliography 373
  • Bibliography 374
  • Romania 377
  • Bibliography 377
  • Bibliography 383
  • Bibliography 384
  • Bibliography 385
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  • Bibliography 391
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  • Bibliography 436
  • Yugoslavia 437
  • Bibliography 437
  • Bibliography 443
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  • Bibliography 496
  • Biblography 496
  • Bibliography 497
  • Index 499
  • About the Author 511
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