1968, Cosic quit the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. He continued his harsh criticism of the communists and was coauthor of the infamous memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences in 1986, which argued that the Serbs were the most persecuted people of Yugoslavia. He also advocated a multiparty political system. Cosic is considered to be the political godfather of Slobodan Milosevic (see Milosevic, Slobodan). He was elected president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the remnant of the old Yugoslavia, on June 15, 1992.
Cosic is the author of fifteen books. He concerns himself mostly with Serbia's struggles for nationhood and Serbians in World War II. He has been twice nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature but has so far been unsuccessful.
Andrejevich Milan, "What Future for Serbia?" Radio Free Europe Research Report, 1. 50 ( December 18, 1992), pp. 7-17; -----, "Serbia's Bosnian Dilemma," Radio Free Europe Research Report, 2. 23 ( June 4, 1993), pp. 14-21; Byrnes Robert F., Yugoslavia ( New York, 1957).
Croatia . Area: 56,538 square kilometers (35,340 square miles). Population: 4,760,300. Capital city: Zagreb (900,000 people). Major ethnic groups: Croats 77.9 percent; Serbs 12.2 percent; Major religions: Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox Christianity. President: Franjo Tudjman. Prime minister: Hrvoje Sarinis.
Croatians are Slavs who arrived in their present territory sometime during the sixth-seventh century A.D. They were converted to Roman Catholicism in the seventh century by missionaries from Rome. The arrival of the Hungarians in the Danube basin meant the end of the Croatian kingdom in the eleventh century. In 1526, following the defeat of the Hungarians by the armies of the Ottoman Sultan, Croatia became an Ottoman dependency. The Habsburg empire's armies pushed the Ottomans out of Croatia in 1699, when most of the territory became part of the military border region separating the Ottoman and Habsburg empires. Croatian nationalists initiated the unification of the southern Slav peoples in 1918, when Croatia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; however, the unification did not work well. The different religious, national, and historical traditions of the nations and ethnic minorities included in the mini-multinational state by the Treaty of Trianon in 1919 worked against the creation of a unified nation. The Slavic language did not become the great unifying force either. Croats always considered themselves more sophisticated and cultured than Serbs and resented the domination of the state by Serbians. In turn, the Serbs were the ones who had sacrificed the most for the unification in terms of soldiers lost and property destroyed in World War I, and they resented Croatian airs of alleged superiority.
Tito's Yugoslavia was only a temporary solution; it did suppress national feelings for a while, but eventually these feelings triumphed over communist ideology. In the elections held in April and May 1990, the Croatian Democratic Community party, headed by Franjo Tudjman, became the majority party in parliament. On June 25,
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Publication information: Book title: Dictionary of East European History since 1945. Contributors: Joseph Held - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1994. Page number: 453.