agreements provided for small barter deals amounting to $5 million, and a new agreement in 1955 doubled this amount. Later, the limit was raised twice, until it reached $30 million. In 1956, Yugoslav exports to the Soviet Bloc amounted to 22.8 percent of the total, and imports came to 22 percent. In later years, Yugoslav exports as well as imports increased, but there were wide fluctuations from year to year. The increases enabled the Yugoslav government to continue its trade relations with Western countries even when it normalized its economic relations with the Soviet Bloc. Only in the mid-1970s did Yugoslavia's trade balance turn decisively negative, which presaged the economic problems of the 1980s. At the present time, rump-Yugoslavia's foreign trade is at a standstill, and it will not be revived until the civil war comes to an end.
Bicanic Ivo, "Privatization in Yugoslavia's Successor States," Radio Free Europe Research Report, 1.22 ( May 29, 1992), pp. 43-49; Milenkovic Deborah, Plan and Market in Yugoslav Economic Thought ( New Haven, CT, 1971); Pejovich Svetozar, The Market-Planned Economy of Yugoslavia ( Minneapolis, MN, 1966); Prout Christopher, Market Socialism in Yugoslavia ( Oxford, 1985); Remington Robin A., "Self-Management and Development Strategies in Socialist Yugoslavia.," in Augustinos Geraaimos, ed. Diverse Paths to Modernity in Southeastern Europe ( New York, 1991); Sirc Ljubo, The Yugoslav Economy Under Self-Management ( London, 1979); Tyson Laura A., The Yugoslav Economic System and its Performance in the 1970s ( Berkeley, CA, 1980); Vojnie D., R. Lang, and B. Marendie, "The Socioeconomic Model in Socialist Self-Management," in George Masesich, ed. Essays on the Yugoslav Economic Model ( New York, 1989).
Foreign Policy of Communist Yugoslavia. Until 1948, Yugoslavia's foreign policies were, by and large, similar to those of the Soviet Union. However, Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz) was belligerent in regard to his conception of Yugoslavia's interests.
Yugoslavia almost went to war with Italy over the question of Trieste. Tito's belligerent statements against the Western Allies went farther than those of Joseph Stalin. His forces fired on and shot down American airplanes that strayed over Yugoslavia. Above all, he was actively involved in the communist insurrection and the civil war in Greece by providing arms and food for the communist guerrillas. Tito and his cabinet members made violent speeches against the West, repeating the well-known slogans about the demise of capitalism.
All this changed abruptly after 1948. Yugoslavia was isolated from the Soviet Bloc when the COMINFORM expelled the Communist party of Yugoslavia from the community of "fraternal parties." However, this isolation did not mean that Tito would suddenly become a friend of the West. On the contrary. While receiving enormous amounts of American aid (over $2.5 billion in food, military, and direct financial assistance during the 1950s) and similar amounts from the Allies, Tito continued to revile the "imperialist" powers, but action was better than talk.
Yugoslavia withdrew its help from the Greek guerrillas, and their movement collapsed. The defiance of Tito had become an example for the other East European
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Publication information: Book title: Dictionary of East European History since 1945. Contributors: Joseph Held - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1994. Page number: 461.
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