Dictionary of East European History since 1945

By Joseph Held | Go to book overview

kingdom, which changed its name in 1926 to Yugoslavia, meaning the "state of the South Slavs." In 1944, Serbia was the base on which Tito built his communist power.

In September 1990, Serbia adopted a new constitution that announced the establishment of a new economic system based on the free market. It also proclaimed a consolidated Serbian state. In December 1990, the socialists (the reformed Communist party) won the elections. After the breakup of the Yugoslav federation, Serbia and Montenegro formed a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Serbia's economy is mixed; it has major industrial enterprises and also fruit and vegetable production on a large scale. Livestock farming is very productive and so is the fishing industry. Kosovo's lignite fields are the largest in Europe, and this province also has lead and zinc ores. Serbia's copper ore production is also very large.


Bibliography

Moore Patrick, "The Widening Warfare in the Former Yugoslavia," Radio Free Europe Research Report, 2.1 ( January 1, 1993), pp. 1-11; Shoup Paul, "Serbia at the Edge of the Abyss," Radio Free Europe Research Report, 1.36 ( September 11, 1992), pp 7-11.

Slovenia.Area: 20,251 square kilometers (12,657 square miles). Population: 1,962,600. Capital city. Ljubljana (300,000). Major ethnic groups: Slovenes, 87.0 percent; Croats, 2.7 percent; Serbs, 2.4 percent; Muslim Slavs, 1.4 percent; "others," 6.5 percent. President. Janez Drnovsek. Prime minister: Milan Kucan.

In the thirteenth century, Slovenia became put of the realm of the Habsburgs. With the dissolution of the Habsburg empire, a Slovene National Assembly decided to join the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later, Yugoslavia).

In April 1990, the first multiparty elections were held since 1938, and DEMOS, a six-party coalition of center and right-wing parties, won over the former Communist party. On June 25, 1991, Slovenia declared its separation from the former Yugoslavia and was, in turn, attacked by the Serbian- dominated Yugoslav federal army. But the Slovenes defeated their adversary in ten days; they took over the former army depots in Slovenia and had ample arms and ammunition with which to defend their new state. On October 7, 1991, Slovenia declared its independence. A new constitution was adopted in late December, and the European states and the United States have recognized Slovenia as an independent state.


Bibliography

Andrejevich Milan, "Slovenia: Politics and the Economy in the Year One," Radio Free Europe Research Report, 1.36 ( September 11, 1992), pp. 15-23; -----, "Elections in Slovenia Maintain Status Quo," Radio Free Europe Research Report 1.50 ( December 18, 1992), pp. 29-31.

Stalin-Tito Conflict. One of the factors that determined the course of communist Yugoslavia and, in retrospect, the entire history of Eastern Europe in the second half of the twentieth century was the conflict between Joseph Stalin and Tito (see Tito, Josip Broz). Tito started out as an "ordinary" communist ruler. He Stalinized the

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