American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924 - Vol. 1

By Daniel F. Littlefield Jr.; James W. Parins | Go to book overview
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vast amounts of periodical literature by and about contemporary Indians and Alaska Natives. Much of that literature appeared in newspapers and periodicals published or edited by them or in newspapers and periodicals devoted to their affairs. During that period, the Indian and Native press had its foundation; there, one finds the antecedents for the many Indian and Native editors and publishers whose newspapers and periodicals form a vital part of today's Indian or Native scene. That period, too, witnessed the flourish and decline of an essentially pro- Indian, though at times misguided, nonsectarian press, which has all but disappeared in the twentieth century as Indians and Natives have been able to resume more and more control of their affairs. It also witnessed the flourish and decline of the Indian Service school and agency publications, which were means for implementing federal policy.

Paradoxes abound in all of these types of publications. The native press, when it engaged in tribal or intertribal factionalism, contributed to the decline of tribal power. The press of the so-called friends of the Indians often worked against the best interests of the Indians by promoting such policies as allotment of lands in severalty. Finally, many of the Indian Service school publications, although instruments of cultural destruction, are excellent examples of the printing craft learned by the students. Those students made up part of the generation of native editors, publishers, and printers whose work bridged the gap between 1924 and the burst of vitality in American Indian and Alaska Native journalism during the last two decades.


Notes
1.
See, e.g., Index to Literature on the American Indian 1971 ( San Francisco: The Indian Historian Press, 1972), 191-230; and Barry Klein (ed.), Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian (Rye, New York: Todd Publications, 1978), 1: 248-268.
2.
Theda Perdue, "Rising from the Ashes: The Cherokee Phoenix as an Ethnohistorical Source," Ethnohistory, 24 (Summer, 1977), 207-218,
3.
Unless otherwise indicated, dates in parentheses indicate the founding.
4.
The Indian Craftsman, 2 ( October, 1909), 35, and 2 ( November, 1909), 42; The Red Man, 4 ( December, 1911), 138, 4 ( April, 1912), 356, 5 ( September, 1912), 41-42, 5 ( February, 1913), 264-265, 6 ( February, 1914), 241, 6 ( September, 1913), 40-41, 7 ( January, 1915), 182-183, and 7 ( November, 1914), 110-111; The Indian School Journal, 19 ( April, 1919), 313. Oscar H. Lipps, "Edgar K. Miller--Master Teacher: An Appreciation, " The Indian School Journal, 33 ( December, 1933), 35.
5.
For Indian movements toward reform, see Hazel W. Hertzberg, The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements ( Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1971), 59-134. Useful concerning California groups is Edward D. Castillo, "Twentieth-Century Secular Movements," in Robert F. Heizer (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: California ( Washington: D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978), 713- 717.
6.
See Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis: Christian Reformers and the Indian, 1865-1900 ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976), passim.
7.
The Albuquerque Indian, 1 ( July, 1905), 12.

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