of their land. By 1910, thousands were landless, and most were burdened with
disease and poverty. Indian policy was not working and clearly needed reform.
The Society of American Indians represented a pan-Indian effort at popularizing the need for reform. The reform it called for was conservative and mainly
legal. It advocated assimilation and the full rights of citizenship for Indians but
called for continuation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, though seriously reorganized. These views of needed reform were too conservative for people like Carlos Montezuma, whose Wassaja* aimed at abolishing the Indian Bureau, and
for groups like the Mission Indian Federation in California. The differing viewpoints among Indians regarding the direction reforms should take are evident in
The American Indian Magazine. These differences reflect growing Indian activism for reform. In a little more than a decade after the magazine ceased publication in 1920, the controversial reform Indian policy formulated by John Collier
and others during the 1920s would become official and would initiate the Indian
New Deal. Although the cultural pluralism advocated in Collier's policy was
not what The American Indian Magazine sought, the magazine reflects the early
stirrings of the reform effort among Indians and is a tangible expression of their
determination to achieve it.
Henry Standing Bear, Hiram Chase, Charles A. Eastman, John M. Oskison, William
Holmes, Marie Baldwin, Frank Wright, Howard E. Gansworth, Dennison Wheelock, J. E. Shields, Emma J. Goulette, Rosa B. LaFlesche, Thomas L. Sloan, and Charles E.
Dagenett were members of the General Committee. For a history of the Society of
American Indians and of The American Indian Magazine, see
Hazel W. Hertzberg, The
Search for an American Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements ( Syracuse: Syracuse
University Press, 1971), 59-193.
Society of American Indians (n.p., 1912), 1.
Parker continued as an archaeologist for the New York State Museum until 1925.
From 1925 to 1946, he was the director of the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences. Parker held a number of editorial positions: the Transactions of the
New York State
Archaeological Association ( 1916- 1955), Museum Service ( 1926- 1945), Research Records ( 1926- 1946), Galleon ( 1949- 1950), and The Builder ( 1949- 1955). He was involved
in numerous civic affairs, he was a practicing ethnologist, and he wrote extensively. Parker died on January 1, 1955. Marion E. Gridley (comp. and ed.), Indians of Today
( Chicago: Millar Publishing Company, 1947), 68-70; "Arthur Caswell Parker," Who
Was Who in America ( Chicago: Marquis--Who's Who, 1960), 3: 664.
In 1926, Bonnin founded the National Council of American Indians. During the
next several years, she lectured and worked for reform in Indian affairs. She died in Washington on January 25, 1938, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Gridley
(comp. and ed.), Indians of Today ( Chicago, 1936), 19; Frederick J. Dockstader, Great
North American Indians ( New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1977), 40-41.
Index Sources: None
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: American Indian and Alaska Native Newspapers and Periodicals, 1826-1924.
Contributors: Daniel F. Littlefield Jr. - Author, James W. Parins - Author.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1984.
Page number: 18.
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