Frederick III: Germany's Liberal Emperor

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NOTES
1.
When Frederick fell ill with an intestinal infection in 1872, he told his wife: "I am so accustomed to suffering from colds in the throat, hence this departure from my usual pattern is rather strange." Hessische Hausstiftung, Schloss Fasanerie, Fulda (hereafter HH): Crown Prince Frederick William to Crown Princess Victoria, Karlsruhe, 14 November 1872.
2.
Sir Frederick Ponsonby, Letters of the Empress Frederick ( London, 1929), p. 224.
3.
As Bismarck noted in his memoirs: "the doctors [were] determined to make the Crown Prince unconscious, and to carry out the removal of the larynx without having informed him of their intention. I raised objections, and required that they should not proceed without the consent of the Crown Prince." Ponsonby, Letters, p. 331. The correspondence shows that the royal couple was kept in the dark about Frederick's illness. During his cure at Bad Ems, the crown prince told his wife that Gerhardt had nothing definite to say about the cause of his hoarseness. He added, "How can one possibly make any sense of this?" Nor did his entourage appear willing to enlighten him: "Stosch has nothing to say, and the same is true of Radolinski and the others--all they tell me is that I must follow doctor's orders!" HH: Crown Prince Frederick William to Crown Princess Victoria, Bad Ems, 13 May 1887.
4.
Dr. Jain A. Lin's recent account of Frederick's illness confirms the danger that the crown prince faced: "As a general surgeon, Dr. Bergmann performed seven laryngectomies between 1882 and 1889. Post-operative survival of his patients averaged from seventeen weeks, and the longest was one and a half years. One year after Fritz's death, he operated on a laryngeal cancer patient who died shortly after surgery." Jain I. Lin, The Death of a Kaiser: A Medical-Historical Narrative ( Dayton, OH, 1985), p. 118.
5.
Lin, Death of a Kaiser, p. 28.
6.
Frederick appeared in a parade for the Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee parade in June, and his "magnificent appearance in a white uniform drew the loudest and longest cheers from the crowd, some of whom saw him variously as Charlemange, Siegfried, Lohengrin, or a new Barbarossa." J. Alden Nichols, The Year of the Three Kaisers: Bismarck and the German Succession, 1887-1888 (Champaign, IL, 1987), p. 21.
7.
The crown prince was so pleased with his physician that he persuaded Queen Victoria to have Mackenzie knighted in September. Shortly thereafter, the crown prince sent a letter to the Prussian Grand Masonic Lodge that included the statement: "Full of trust I look to God and hope that, recuperated, in the not too distant future I can return with my family to My Residence in the midst of My Beloved Fatherland." Nichols, Three Kaisers, p. 22. Mackenzie, however, was not admired at the court of the crown prince. He alienated members of Frederick's household by his terse requests for exorbitant fees. After he presented Radolinski

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