The Infinite in the Finite

By Alistair Macintosh Wilson | Go to book overview

18
THE CONTRIBUTION OF ISLAM

THE CONQUESTS OF THE ARABS

On 8 June AD 632 Mohammed, the Prophet of Allah, died at Medina in present-day Saudi Arabia. The last of the prophets had gone to his reward. Addressing Mohammed's followers, Abu Bakr, his father-in-law, said: 'People, let him amongst you who served Mohammed know that Mohammed is dead, but let him who served God continue in his service, for Mohammed's God lives and never dies.' The succession was decided between Abu Bakr, Umar and Mohammed's cousin Ali, the choice finally falling on Abu Bakr, who became the first Khalifa (deputy). We know him as the first Caliph.

After the Prophet's death, the unity he had imposed on the desert Bedouin, and the town-dwellers of Arabia, began to disintegrate. Rival prophets arose, claiming that they too received revelations from Allah. To deal with these heretics, Abu Bakr dispatched Khalid (ibn al-Walid), the Sword of God. They were defeated and slaughtered.

The Prophet had enjoined his followers to wage war, until all people were of their religion, saying: 'In the shades of scimitars is paradise prefigured.' The Arab people carried out Mohammed's instructions to the letter. In 633, al-Muthanna (ibn Haritha) chief of the Bani Shaiban struck at the weak Sassanid Empire of Persia. Invading central Mesopotamia, he took Hira. The main bulk of the camel-mounted Arab army swung west, driving for the most important prize in Asia Minor, Damascus. An army of 70 000 sent by the Roman Emperor Heraclius at Constantinople (Byzantium) was slaughtered, and Damascus fell to Khalid on 23 August 635, the day Abu Bakr died.

Umar (ibn al-Khattab), the second Caliph, opened his reign with the following promise: 'Muslims, as Allah is my witness, none of you shall be too strong for me to sacrifice the rights of the weak, nor too weak for me to neglect the rights of the strong.' In 636 Khalid destroyed the Byzantines at Yarmuk in Jordan, and a Sassanid army of 120 000 was routed by 12 000 Arabs at Qadisiyya in Iraq. In 638 the Muslims took Jerusalem after a two-year siege, and in 640 Amr (ibn al-As) crossed into Egypt. Defeating

-461-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Infinite in the Finite
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Symphonies of Stone 1
  • 2 - The Pyramid Builders 19
  • 3 - The Theban Mysteries 42
  • 4 - Babylon 53
  • 5 - The Middle Kingdom 72
  • 6 - The Achaeans 105
  • 7 - A World Made of Numbers 112
  • 8 - The Thoughts of Zeus 132
  • 9 - The Philosopher's Criticism 163
  • 10 - The Elements of Euclid 206
  • 11 - An Island Interlude 239
  • 12 - Proportion 252
  • 13 - The Divine Archimedes 278
  • 14 - Apollonius the Great Geometer 324
  • 15 - The Science of Numbers 366
  • 16 - The School of Alexandria 388
  • 17 - The Dark Sub­ Continent of India 426
  • 18 - The Contribution of Islam 461
  • Bibliography 509
  • Index 515
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 532

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.