The Etiquette of Race Relations in the South: A Study in Social Control

By Bertram Wilbur Doyle | Go to book overview

APPENDIX

NOTES FOR CHAPTER I
1.
Mrs. Varina Davis, Memoirs of Jefferson Davis ( New York, 1890), II, 934.
2.
"Marster" with the broad a has been said to be the form of address generally used by slaves to masters. "Massa" seems to be a corruption brought in by writers who attempted to reproduce the word for publication. "Mars" was apparently the elided form of "marster."
3.
Whitelaw Reid, After the War: A Southern Tour from May, 1865, to May, 1866 ( London, 1866), pp. 568-69.
4.
G. W. Featherstonehaugh, Excursion through the Slave States from Washington on the Potomac to the Frontier to Mexico with Sketches of Popular Manners and Geological Notes ( New York, 1844), p. 29.
5.
John Spencer Bassett ( The Southern Plantation Overseer: As Revealed in His Letters [ Northampton, Mass., 1925], p. 8) mentions that "'buckra' is a word expressing scorn for a man of no standing." F. C. Adams ( Manuel Pereira: Or the Sovereign State of South Carolina [ Washington, 1853], pp. 50, 184, 223, 269, 277) implies that the Sea Island slaves used the term to refer to nonslaveholding white men and that "poor buckra" was a degree lower in the scale. Victoria V. Clayton ( White and Black under the Old Regime [ Milwaukee, 1899], p. 172) believed that the term carried with it a bit of contempt. But Elizabeth Ware Pearson (ed.) ( Letters from Port Royal; Written at the Time of the Civil War [ Boston, 1906], p. 141) and Frances Anne Kemble ( A Journal of Residence on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839 [ New York, 1863], pp. 65-66) seem to consider the word in general use, as a term of reference only.
6.
J. S. Buckingham, The Slave States of America ( London, 1842), I, 480.
7.
Harriet Martineau, Society in America ( New York, 1837), I, 222.
8.
"Le nouveau savoir-vivre," quoted in American Weekly, May 31, 1931) pp. 1-2.
9.
"Usages are folkways which contain no principle of welfare, but serve convenience, so long as all know what is expected to be done. . . . . It is an advantage that there should be a usage and that all should know and observe it" ( W. G. Sumner, Folkways [ New York, 1930], p. 57). Sir Henry Maine, describing the written Roman code of law, and mentioning that it belongs to a class of codes, says: "Their value does not consist in any approach to symmetrical classification, or to terseness and clearness of expression, but in their publicity, and in the knowledge which they furnish to everybody as to what he was to do and what not to do" ( Ancient Law [ 3d Amer. ed., from the 5th London ed.; New York, 1888], p. 25).
10.
Principles of Sociology ( London, 1882), II, 3.
11.
My Bondage and Freedom ( New York, 1855), p. 138.
12.
Sumner, op. cit., p. iii.
13.
Clayton, op. cit., p. 68.
14.
Op. cit., p. 77.
15.
Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass ( Boston, 1849), p. 79.
16.
Following the Color Line: An Account of Negro Citizenship in the American Democracy ( New York, 1908), p. 63. The statement is not wholly accurate. Slaves addressed strange white men, supposedly of the upper class, as "Boss" and "Cap'n."

-191-

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