According to the preliminary results of the January 1992 Romanian census, the country's population stood at 22,760,449, of which about 10.6 percent were members of minority ethnic groups. 1 Hungarians formed the largest minority, totaling 1,620,199, or 7.12 percent of the population, with absolute majorities in two eastern Transylvanian counties, Harghita and Covasna. However, the Magyars comprised only 23.9 percent of the total population of the Transylvanian region, 21.2 percent of the population of the Crişana Maramureş region in northern Romania, and 6.6 percent of the population in the Banat region; an estimated 200,000 Hungarians resided in Bucharest. Hungarian activists disputed these figures and estimated the total Magyar population at nearer to 2 million. Gypsies or Roma accounted for 409,723 people, or 1.8 percent of the population, although their numbers were believed to be substantially undeffecorded. Germans totaled 119,436, or 0.52 percent of the population. The remaining minorities included 66,833 Ukrainians, 38,688 Russians and Lipovans, 29,533 Turks, 29,080 Serbs, 24,649 Tatars, 20,672 Slovaks, 9,935 Bulgarians, 9,107 Jews, 5,880 Czechs, 4,247 Poles, 4,180 Croats, 3,897 Greeks, and 2,023 Armenians. People who were unregistered ("others") totaled 8,420, and 1,017 remained "undeclared." In comparison to the 1977 census, the total population grew by 5.6 percent of this, the ethnic Romanian component increased by 7.1 percent, while the Hungarian proportion declined by 5.5 percent. Gypsy numbers were recorded at 80.2 percent higher and German at 66.7 percent lower. The Ukrainian minority increased by 21 percent, the Russian by 18.4 percent, and the Turkish by 26.1 percent. All other minority groups experienced a decrease over the 15 years between the two censuses.
Romania gained its independence from the Ottoman Turks in 1862, with the union of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. 2 These provinces formed
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Publication information: Book title: Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe:A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations, and Parties. Contributors: Janusz Bugajski - Author. Publisher: M.E. Sharpe. Place of publication: Armonk, NY. Publication year: 1995. Page number: 197.
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