The Elements of Scientific Psychology

By Knight Dunlap | Go to book overview

CHAPTER X
REACTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS

§1. Degrees of consciousness.

One of the striking things about consciousness is that it may vary in degree: I may be more or less conscious of any given content, without any change in the content itself. As I sit here at the present moment, I am conscious of the whirring of the electric fan in the next room. This whir is a constant sound, which affects my auditory receptors continuously. Its intensity, pitch and timber do not change to an appreciable extent. Yet, at one moment, I am "vividly" conscious of it: or I might say, it is a "vivid" sound. At another moment, I am conscious of it much less vividly: it becomes a part of the "background" of content. Yet the stimulation of my auditory receptors is the same at both moments.

Another way of expressing these facts is to say that I am more attentive to the noise at one moment than at another. Attention and consciousness, in fact, are terms which are to a large extent synonymous: attention is, however, used most generally to designate the higher degrees of consciousness. When I am "attentive" to any content, I am highly (in degree) conscious of that content. When I say that I am "inattentive," I mean that the degree of consciousness is low. We speak of attentive consciousness as vivid consciousness; and we say also that the content is vivid, meaning that we are vividly conscious of it.

Although we cannot say strictly that consciousness is complex, or composite (although its conditions are highly complex), yet we do find that at a given moment we are vividly conscious of one detail of content, and less vividly conscious of other details. I may be conscious of the noise of the fan, and of some one's voice, at the same time; vividly conscious of one, and much less vividly conscious of the other. I may be conscious of auditory, visual and olfactory objects at the same time that I am conscious

-202-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Elements of Scientific Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 370

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.