Analytical Cytology: Methods for Studying Cellular Form and Function

By Robert C. Mellors | Go to book overview
ketones and for PNA, plasmalogen, phospholipid, esterases, and dehydrogenases. The validity of localization has received close scrutiny for the nucleal stain for DNA-protein and the stains for phosphatases, cholinesterases, and, to a lesser extent, esterases, ϟ-glucuronidase, and oxidative enzymes. From these critical studies have emerged principles and procedures by which staining methods, past and future, can better be evaluated and improved. It is always a temptation, particularly in the enzyme field with its almost limitless numbers of individual enzymes, to attempt the development of new methods. It seems to us, however, that the time has arrived when a new staining method should be subjected to all the tests of reliability used with profit for other methods, before it is proposed for histochemical use. A recent publication by Holt (347) may serve as a model of the critical thought and painstaking work required. Where possible, parallel biochemical and staining studies (251, 241, 163) would appear highly desirable.Important developments may be anticipated in all the areas which we have discussed. We look forward especially to future work on (a) the application of microspectrophotometry to a wider variety of staining methods, (b) the evaluation of cold polyethylene glycols as fixing- dehydrating agents and as embedding media, (c) the use of agents like lead tetraacetate to characterize different types of polysaccharides, (d) the possibility of visualizing ketonic substances, (e) the methods for protein staining presented in preliminary form by Danielli (69), (g) the validity of enzyme localization indicated by the indoxyl and tetrazolium methods, (h) the effectiveness of salts in reducing enzyme diffusion in fresh-frozen sections, (i) the effectiveness of the measures suggested by different investigators to eliminate diffusion of products of enzyme reactions, (j) the usefulness of differences in staining reactions for the classification of esterases (140); and (k) the usefulness of tetrazolium salts and indoxyl salts for visualizing enzyme sites in living cells (114, 152).
References
1. Abolins L., and Abolins A., "Different kinds of acid phosphatase in various cytological structures of the anterior pituitary of the guinea pig", Nature, 164: 455-456 ( 1949).
2. Adamstone F. B., and Taylor A. B. , "The rapid preparation of frozen tissue sections", Stain Technol., 23: 109-116 ( 1948).
3. Albert S., and LeBlond C. P., "The distribution of the Feulgen and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine reactions in normal, castrated, adrenalectomized and hormonally treated rats", Endocrinology, 39: 386-400 ( 1946).
4. Allfrey V., Stern H., Mirsky A. E. , and Saetren H., "The isolation of cell nuclei in non-aqueous media", J. Gen. Physiol., 35: 529- 554( 1952).
5. Altmann R., "Die Elementaror"

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