Order No. 11
THE shocking and bloody massacre at Lawrence called for action, and Ewing took it. On August 25 from his headquarters at Kansas City, he issued "General Orders, No. 11." Under its provisions the people residing in Jackson, Cass, and Bates counties and that part of Vernon County within the District of the Border, except those living within one mile of Independence, Hickman Mills, Pleasant Hill, Harrisonville, and Kansas City, were required to leave their homes by September 9. Those who by that time established their loyalty with the commanding officer of the military station nearest their place of residence would be permitted to remove to any military station in the district or to any part of Kansas "except the counties on the eastern border of the State." Persons failing to establish their loyalty were to move out of the district--an order to be enforced by military action if disobeyed.1
Ewing issued Order No. 11 for five distinct yet closely related reasons. The first of these was military. He regarded the order as vitally necessary for the suppression of bushwhacking and the prevention of further raids. The order was not a retaliation____________________
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Publication information: Book title: A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861-1865. Contributors: Albert Castel - Author. Publisher: Cornell University Press. Place of publication: Ithaca, NY. Publication year: 1958. Page number: 142.
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