Intergroup Relations

By Walter G. Stephan; Cookie White Stephan | Go to book overview

similar effects in Israel ( Hertz-Lazarowitz, Sapir, & Sharan, 1982; Sharan & Shachar, 1988).

A variety of factors appear to be operating together to produce these favorable results. Working in cooperative groups tends to undercut ingroup-outgroup bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias is based on identification with the ingroup and rejection of outgroups. When students work together in mixed teams, they come to identify with and favorably evaluate their own team, which contains members of both the ingroup and the outgroup ( Gaertner, Mann, Dovidio, Murrell, & Pomare, 1989; Gaertner, Mann, Murrell, & Dovidio, 1989). The teams thus become superordinate groups in which initial distinctions between ethnic groups are submerged.

Interaction with outgroup members in cooperative groups also provides the students with an opportunity to acquire information that is inconsistent with their stereotypes. This stereotype-disconfirming information can change stereotypes because it occurs frequently, for a variety of outgroup members, and across a variety of situations (cf. Rothbart & John, 1985). The students also learn that outgroup members vary considerably, which can lead to differentiated perceptions of the outgroup. In addition, in this context the students are dependent on one another and dependence leads to an increased focus on individuating information ( Erber & Fiske, 1984). After reviewing more than 600 studies on cooperative learning groups, one set of researchers concluded that interdependence is the key to the positive effects of cooperative learning ( Johnson & Johnson, 1992a). The Johnsons suggest that mutual interdependence leads people in cooperative groups to put aside their own immediate interests in favor of striving to help all members of the group achieve their joint goals. People take pride in the accomplishments of others and become bound to them by ties of mutual obligation and responsibility leading to feelings of cohesion and attraction to other group members.

One problem that often remains in cooperative classroom groups is that the White students are higher in social class and achievement than the minority students. Cohen ( 1980) and her coworkers have found, however, that even these status inequalities can be overcome if the minority students are highly competent on the assigned tasks. In her studies Cohen trained the minority group members to explicitly disconfirm negative stereotypes concerning minority competence. Another solution to the status inequality problem was originally developed by DeVries and Edwards ( 1974). In their cooperative groups, each student's performance contributes to the team's overall standing. To avoid the possibility that low-achieving students will hinder the

-86-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Intergroup Relations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Chapter - 1 Stereotypes 1
  • Summary 30
  • Chapter - 2 Theories of Prejudice 33
  • Chapter - 3 The Contact Hypothesis in Intergroup Relations 61
  • Summary 86
  • Chapter - 4 Social Identity, Self-Categorization, and Intergroup Attitudes 89
  • Summary 111
  • Chapter - 5 Intercultural Relations 115
  • Summary 138
  • Chapter - 6 Intergroup Conflict and Its Resolution 141
  • Summary 169
  • References 173
  • Index 211
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 228

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.