CHAPTER V
EMOTION

Passion and emotion themselves are, in us, not without thought in a flow. -- MARTINEAU

Emotion is a stirred-up state of the organism. Anger, fear, grief are examples. It is the psychic manifestation in such illustrations as these that, in the popular mind at least, is the emotion. These psychic manifestations are associated with the appropriate type of behavior that we exhibit. Whether it is an association of cause and effect, and which is the cause and which is the effect, are questions perhaps not open to discussion on scientific grounds. Those, however, who are inclined by nature and training toward laboratory research will be predisposed to regard the state of the organism as the cause of the psychic exhibition -- not contrariwise. Indeed, in some quarters, the psychic exhibit and the inner and outer behavior in grief, for example -- that is the total state of the organism -- are described as the emotion. And this state is conceived as possessing a driving power or of being a driving power precisely as any other disposition, complex, or state is thought of as being dynamic.

This view of the case suggests a possible alliance of the emotional state with the complex patterns in the background of behavior that we have already been considering.


THE JAMES-LANGE THEORY OF EMOTION

Indeed the James-Lange theory of emotional states itself recognizes such an alliance. This theory describes the emotion (and here we have reference to the psychic manifestation of the state) as a sum of sensations that arise from certain bodily and organic processes that are going on in conjunction with the emotional experience.

In grief there is a characteristic facial expression. We feel or sense the pulling and relaxing of the muscles that produce the expression. We sense the changes in muscle activity in other parts of the body. The spasmodic action of the muscles in the chest

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