CHAPTER VII
INTELLIGENCE OF CRIMINALS

Criminals are neither accidents nor anomalies in the universe, but come by laws and testify to causality; and it is the business of science to find out what the causes are, and by what laws they work. -- H. MAUDSLEY

Positivism in criminology embraces, among others, the psychologic approach to the criminal. In our Chapter II above we cited several foreshadowings of this way into a knowledge of the nature of the criminal. Indeed, it is implicit in the Lombrosian doctrine of atavism. For Lombroso believed it is impossible for one who carries in his person the physical signs of development that is arrested somewhere between the lower animals and the human level to possess normal human "sentiments." The drives that operate the atavistic being are the impulsions of lower animals: their instincts, passions, and emotions. Their intelligence, by inference, is the intelligence of lower animals. It is the peculiar balance of these psychic characteristics that obtains in lower animals as contrasted with their balance in higher forms that accounts for contrasting modes of behavior. This is a familiar conception at present. But Lombroso did not emphasize it. He was busy, for the most part, with other considerations.

Goring too recognized the psychologic element in the situation. But his main interest was to answer Lombroso's argument for a physical criminal type and his obeisance to the psychologic interest consisted almost wholly in recording popular estimates of intelligence differences between various groups.

It was almost coincident with the beginning of Goring's work that systematic psychological research relating to delinquents was beginning in the United States. And it began with an examination of the intelligence of young malefactors and an attempt at measuring it.


MEANINGS OF INTELLIGENCE

"Intelligence" is a term that does not easily fit into a definition. In popular language it suggests, usually, only the characteristic of possessing a fund of information. Less frequently it connotes merely

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