CHAPTER XI
RACE AND SEX

We have no knowledge as yet of the precise limits between a race's mental endowment and its culture; between its inborn mental ability and its mental acquisitions. -- STRATTON

Too frequently when one writes or speaks of "race" one is employing a figure of speech -- or rather a symbol that stands for a people who happen to be living within a given geographic area, and not a people who are, biologically, a race.

We have already seen that Lombroso's critics attributed some of the physical characterist ics of the criminal population as he described them, not to criminal nature, but to race. In other words, the Italian prisoners in Lombroso's day were racially mixed. And indeed the people of Europe whence America has drawn almost her whole population is a mixture of races that defies our best efforts at untangling.

There are the tall blond Nordics with narrow heads who compose a large proportion of the populations of England, Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Holland, and Northwestern Germany. There are the round headed and more stocky Alpines who are numerous in Southeastern Germany, Switzerland, France, the Tyrol, Poland, Russia, Jugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia. And finally there is the Mediterranean race: brunettes, medium in height and slender, with narrow heads and dark brown hair. There is a large proportion of them among Arabs. In Europe they are in Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, and Portugal.

But the geographical boundaries of these races are by no means exactly drawn. It is correct to say only that the preponderance of a given race is to be found in a given region. Every population is mixed. Moreover, individuals are of mixed blood and it is impossible to estimate the proportion of racial bloods that are combined in a given individual.

As a consequence of this mixture of races and that alone, it is impossible to make anything that approximates to an accurate estimate of the connection, whatever it may be, between race and criminal

-192-

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