Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation

By Helen M. Cooper; Adrienne Auslander Munich et al. | Go to book overview
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ture; see, for example, Lippard's Introduction to Voices of Women and Nochlin's contribution on Kollwitz in Harris and Nochlin's Women Artists.
10.
See Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland, and the anthology When Biology Became Destiny, edited by Bridenthal, Grossmann, and Kaplan, for discussions on the ideology of mothering in Germany during the early twentieth century.
11.
Krahmer, Käthe Kollwitz, 85.
12.
Ruddick, "Maternal Thinking,"224.
13.
Ruddick, "Preservative Love,"235-36, 240.
14.
See the discussion in Ruddick's "Preservative Love" on the connection between warfare and abstract thinking and between mothering and a more concrete orientation (249-52). See Gilligan, In a Different Voice, for further elaboration on these linkages.
15.
Jutta Kollwitz, "Aus der letzten Zeit,"192.
16.
The entry also documents the difficulty Kollwitz had in dismissing patriotism as a "lifeless" ideal. There was a certain variant of German Idealism operative in her thinking that enabled her to continue a sentimental attachment to country even after she came to espouse internationalism.
17.
Käthe Kollwitz, Tagebuchblätter und Briefe, 41-42.
18.
Compare her February 1933 letter to a friend in her Tagebuchblätter und Briefe (150) with her diary entry of February 15, 1933. The manifesto is reprinted in her Bekenntnisse, edited by Volker Frank (71-72).
19.
Heinrich Mann, who also signed the manifesto and who was therefore also forced to resign from the Prussian Academy of Arts, left Germany six days after this expulsion. The "inner emigration" of those who, like Kollwitz, chose to remain, was not without compromise. In the same entry Kollwitz records that the Gestapo's threats did induce her to retract some measure of her previously published support for the Soviet Union. See Krahmer's Käthe Kollwitz (113) for documentation that she did not, however, reveal the name they were seeking of another Soviet supporter.
20.
Jutta Kollwitz, "Aus der letzten Zeit,"191.
21.
Käthe Kollwitz, Tagebuchblätter und Briefe, 161-62.

Works Cited

Bridenthal, Renate, Atina Grossmann, and Marion Kaplan, eds. When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany. New York: Monthly Review, 1984.

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Goodman, Katherine. Dis/Closures: Women's Autobiography in GermanyBetween 1790 and 1914

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