ture; see, for example, Lippard's Introduction to Voices of Women and Nochlin's contribution on Kollwitz in
See Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland, and the anthology When Biology Became Destiny, edited by
discussions on the ideology of mothering in Germany during the early twentieth century.
Krahmer, Käthe Kollwitz, 85.
Ruddick, "Maternal Thinking,"224.
Ruddick, "Preservative Love,"235-36, 240.
See the discussion in Ruddick's "Preservative Love" on the connection between warfare and abstract thinking and between mothering and a
more concrete orientation (249-52). See Gilligan, In a Different Voice, for
further elaboration on these linkages.
Jutta Kollwitz, "Aus der letzten Zeit,"192.
The entry also documents the difficulty Kollwitz had in dismissing patriotism as a "lifeless" ideal. There was a certain variant of German Idealism operative in her thinking that enabled her to continue a
sentimental attachment to country even after she came to espouse internationalism.
Käthe Kollwitz, Tagebuchblätter und Briefe, 41-42.
Compare her February 1933 letter to a friend in her Tagebuchblätter
und Briefe (150) with her diary entry of February 15, 1933. The manifesto is
reprinted in her Bekenntnisse, edited by
Volker Frank (71-72).
Heinrich Mann, who also signed the manifesto and who was therefore also forced to resign from the Prussian Academy of Arts, left Germany
six days after this expulsion. The "inner emigration" of those who, like Kollwitz, chose to remain, was not without compromise. In the same entry Kollwitz records that the Gestapo's threats did induce her to retract some
measure of her previously published support for the Soviet Union. See Krahmer's Käthe Kollwitz (113) for documentation that she did not, however, reveal the name they were seeking of another Soviet supporter.
Jutta Kollwitz, "Aus der letzten Zeit,"191.
Käthe Kollwitz, Tagebuchblätter und Briefe, 161-62.
Atina Grossmann, and
Marion Kaplan, eds. When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany. New
York: Monthly Review, 1984.
Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's
Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Goodman, Katherine. Dis/Closures: Women's Autobiography in GermanyBetween 1790 and 1914
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Arms and the Woman:War, Gender, and Literary Representation.
Contributors: Helen M. Cooper - Editor, Adrienne Auslander Munich - Editor, Susan Merrill Squier - Editor.
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press.
Place of publication: Chapel Hill, NC.
Publication year: 1989.
Page number: 223.
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