Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

4
Underpinnings of System Evaluation

David W. Abbott

Mark A. Wise

University of Central Florida

John A. Wise

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University


BACKGROUND

Rapid advances in software and hardware have provided the capability to develop very complex systems that have highly interrelated components. Although this has permitted significant increases in system efficiency and has allowed the development and operation of systems that were previously impossible (e.g., negative stability aircraft), it has also brought the danger of system-induced catastrophes. Perrow ( 1984) argued that complex systems that are highly coupled (i.e., have highly interdependent components) are unstable and have a disposition toward massive failure. This potential instability makes human-factors-based evaluation more important than it has been in the past, whereas the component coupling makes the traditional modular evaluation methods obsolete.

Systems that are highly coupled can create new types of failures. The coupling of components that were previously independent can result in unpredicted failures. As systems become more coupled, interdisciplinary issues will become more critical. For example, it is possible that new problems could reside in the human--machine interface where disciplines meet and interact. It is in these intellectual intersections that new compromises and cross-discipline trade-offs will be made. And it will be in these areas that new and unanticipated human-factors-based failures may emerge.

As systems grow in complexity and intradependence the cost of performing adequate testing is rapidly approaching a critical level. The cost of certification in aviation has been a significant cost driver. The popular aviation press is continually carrying articles on an aviation part (e.g., an alternator) that is exactly the same as an automobile part (i.e., comes off exactly the same assembly line) but that costs two to three times as much because of the aviation certification costs. Human-factors-based verification, validation, and certification methods must thus not only be effective, they must also be cost-effective.

"Technically adequate" human factors testing may not even be sufficient or even relevant to a system becoming safely operational. The political and emotional issues

-51-

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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