Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

ergonomics norms and standards, the very fundamental knowledge to be considered in modern human factors is based on the result of task analysis and cognitive modeling, and the core question to solve is the final position of human in command, not the size and color of displays. The European ergonomics school with Rasmussen, Leplat, Reason, de Keyser, and some U.S. scientists such as Woods or Hutchins have been early precursors in the 1980s to this change of human factors' focus. But the change in orientation takes much more time for industry, maybe because these modern human factors are less quantitative and more qualitative, and ask for a much deeper investment in psychology than ergonomics recipes did before. Third and last, many people in society think with a linear logic of progress and have great reluctance to consider that a successful solution could reach an apogee beyond which the optimization could lead to more drawbacks than benefits. In other words, human factors problems could be much more sensitive tomorrow than today if the system continues to optimize on the same basis. In contrast, the instrument is so powerful that it needs some taming. This phase will only take place through experience, doubtless by changes in the entire aeronautic system, in jobs, and in roles.

Let us not forget, in conclusion, that these changes are far from being the only ones likely to occur in the next 20 years. Another revolution, as important as that brought about by automation, may well take place when datalink systems supporting communications between onboard and ground computers control the aircraft's flight path automatically. But this is another story . . . in a few years from now, which will certainly require that a lot of studies be carried out in the field of human factors.

One could say also that the problems are largely exaggerated. It is simply true that performance has been improved with automation, and that safety is remarkable, even though better safety is always desirable.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The ideas expressed in this chapter only engage the author and must not be considered as official views from any national or international authorities or official bodies to which the author belongs. Part of the work presented in this chapter (human error and human recovery) was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Defense, DRET Gr9, Contract 94.013; Dr. Guy Veron was the technical monitor. The author thanks Robert Helmreich for his helpful suggestions and text revision.


REFERENCES

Abbott K., Slotte S., Stimson D., Amalberti R., Bollin G., Fabre F., Hecht S., Imrich T., Lalley R., Lyddane G. , Newman T., & Thiel G. ( 1996, June). The interfaces between flightcrews and modern flight deck systems (Report of the FAA HF Team). Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration.

Amalberti R., & Deblon F. ( 1992). "Cognitive modelling of fighter aircraft's control process: A step towards intelligent onboard assistance system". International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 36, 639-671.

Amalberti R. ( 1993, October). Cockpit automation: Maintaining manual skills and cognitive skills (pp. 110-118). Paper presented at IATA, Montreal.

Amalberti R. (Ed). ( 1994). Briefings, a human factors coursefor professional pilots. Paris: IFSA-DEDALE (French, English and Spanish versions).

Amalberti R. ( 1996). La conduite de systèmes à risques. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France (PUF).

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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