Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

8
Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation

Prince Carolyn NAWCTSD FAA UCF Partnership for Aviation Team Training

Eduardo Salas Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Group process is the intragroup and intergroup actions that transform resources into a product; these processes serve to maintain the group and to help the group directly in achieving their goals.

-- Gladstein, 1984, p. 500

In a short story, the Argentinean writer Borges ( 1962) described three men who lived in an imaginary country. The first man lost nine coins, the second man, looking in the area where the coins had been lost, found four of the coins, and a third man found two more coins because he knew they had been lost. When the man who had lost the coins found the last three, he knew that all the coins had been recovered. This whole sequence was possible, explained Borges, because all three men were different manifestations of the same person, and each of the three had the same knowledge of the coins' status. Although teams must function, at times, like Borges' fictional man, team members do not have a single mind and memory and must compensate for this by using teamwork to achieve coordination.

With the recognition that technically competent aircrews were experiencing performance problems due to failures in crew interactions ( Ruffel Smith, 1979), teamwork became an issue for cockpit crew member training. Soon afterward, it was recognized that other teams working in aviation (e.g., cabin crews, maintenance teams, controllers) also needed improved teamwork. Accordingly, a concern for all aviation training now focuses on improving the ways individuals interact.

Attempts to improve team interactions for cockpit crews resulted in the introduction of crew resource management (CRM) training in the late 1970s. They were also responsible for the establishment of research programs on crew interactions, or team processes, by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the military services, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Laboratory (NASA-Ames; see Wiener, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993).

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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