Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

flexible, agreement-by-consensus approach into individualistic, accountable, inflexible, top-down contexts, we will be laying grounds for a clash of objectives. Proper consideration of differences and cultural calibration of ideas, no matter how good they may be, are essential.


CONCLUSIONS

On balance, it might be argued that these are the best of the times and the worst of the times for CRM. CRM has established itself as a central protagonist of the aviation system, and it has become an international training requirement mandated by ICAO. However, as the numerous warnings flags raised in this chapter attest, there are very good reasons to plan the future of CRM with critical intelligence. Effective CRM training requires dropping the piecemeal strategies largely favored in the past in favor of a system approach, because implementing CRM does not only mean training pilots, controllers, or mechanics, but developing the organization. The notion that CRM is another tool to improve organizational effectiveness has transcended "traditional" operational boundaries, and has gradually started to be acknowledged by those in "high places" ( Harper, 1995). This encouraging development must continue to gain momentum.

The imbalance of priorities and possibilities among different contexts remains a serious obstacle to the globalization of CRM as it exists today. This situation is closely related to the cross-cultural issues discussed in this chapter, and it will acquire particular relevance as airlines start implementing CRM training in response to the ICAO requirement in Annex 6. Nothing could be more distanced from reality than assuming that because CRM--as we know it--has worked in the United States, it will work anywhere. This does not imply that the basic principles underlying CRM are not of universal value--CRM is indeed a global concept. It is merely a reminder that the contents of the package with the basic principles might need to be substantially different.

Airlines within the "industrial belt" of the aviation community are dealing with "rocket science" CRM, while others not fortunate enough to have their headquarters located within this belt are still struggling with "CRM 101." The integration of flight and cabin crew CRM training is an example. As a consequence of safety studies and recommendations in accident reports, it has become the focus of attention of several major airlines ( Vandermark, 1991). On the other hand, Dahlburg ( 1995) reported that pilots in India have refused to fly with senior flight attendants who receive larger salaries than some junior co-pilots. The pilots' view expresses indignation that "they compare a co-pilot to someone who only serves coffee and tea and keeps the passengers comfortable." The dispute has reached a point where flight attendants have been put off of a number of flights. Would "American" CRM find breeding grounds within this organizational context? Faizi's plea for consideration of contexts, Johnston's doubts about the suitability of existing CRM to some cultures, and Merritt's concerns about cultural imperialism are clear reminders that frontiers exist not only to provide a means of living for customs and immigration officers.

Any discussion on cultural issues associated to the transfer of technology has sensitive overtones, some of which have been discussed in this chapter. One major airline continues to challenge the Boeing's statistics on regional accident rates mentioned earlier, arguing that although an airline may have a clean record, because the airline

-230-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 698

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.