Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

proposed by several authors and institutions ( International Labour Office, 1988; Koller, 1989; Rutenfranz, 1982; Rutenfranz et al., 1985; Scott & LaDou, 1990).

Work at night and on irregular shift schedules should be restricted for people suffering from severe disorders that are associated with or can be aggravated by shift lag and jet lag, in particular, important gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., peptic ulcer, chronic hepatitis, and pancreatitis); insulin-dependent diabetes, as regular and proper food intake and correct therapeutic timing are required; hormonal pathologies (e.g., thyroid and suprarenal gland), because they demand regular drug assumption strictly connected to the activity/rest periods; epilepsy, as the seizures can be favored by sleep deprivation and the efficacy of treatment can be hampered by irregular wake-rest schedules; chronic psychiatric disorders, depression in particular, as they are often associated with a disruption of the sleep /wakefulness cycle and can be influenced by the light/dark periods; chronic sleep disturbances; and coronary heart diseases, severe hypertension, and asthma, as exacerbations are more likely to occur at night and treatment is less effective at certain hours of the day.

Moreover, occupational health doctors should consider very carefully those who may be expected to encounter more difficulty in coping with night work and jet lag on the basis of their psychophysiological characteristics, health, and living conditions, such as age over 50; low amplitude and stability of circadian rhythms; rigidity of sleeping habits and low ability to overcome drowsiness; extreme morningness; high neuroticism; unsatisfactory housing conditions; and women with small children but lacking social support.

Therefore, medical checks have to be focused mainly on sleeping habits and troubles, eating and digestive problems, psychosomatic complaints, drug consumption, housing conditions, transport facilities, work loads, and off-job activities, preferably using standardized questionnaires, checklists, and rating scales, in order to monitor the worker's behavior throughout the years.

Besides this, permanent education and counseling should be provided for improving self-care strategies for coping, in particular as concerns sleep, smoking, diet, drugs, stress management, and physical fitness.

The adoption of these criteria could also improve the efficacy of preemployment screenings, in order to avoid allocating some people, who are more vulnerable in circadian rhythmic structure and psychophysical homeostasis to jobs that require shift and night work.


Adams J., Folkard S., & Young M. ( 1986). "Coping strategies used by nurses on night duty". Ergonomics, 29, 185-196.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1985a). "Adjustment of physiological circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle to shiftwork". In S. Folkard & T. H. Monk (Eds.), Hours of work: Temporal factors in work scheduling (pp. 185-197). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1985b). "Shifted sleep hours". Annals of Clinical Research, 17, 273-279.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1990a). "Psychological and psychophysiological effects of shiftwork". Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 16, 67-73.

Åkerstedt T. ( 1990b). Wide awake at odd hours. Shift work, time zones and burning the midnight oil (pp. 1-116). Stockholm: Swedish Council for Work Life Research.

Åkerstedt T., & Gillberg M. ( 1981). "The circadian variation of experimentally displaced sleep". Sleep, 4, 159-169.


Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this page

Cited page

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents



Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 698

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?