Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

tions will depend on the coordinated use of automation, procedures, and communications to better balance controller and pilot workload.


Convergent Evolution of ATC and Flight Deck Functionality and Information

As user participation increases and air and ground system elements focus more on solving a common problem, the separate air and ground systems will begin to more closely resemble each other ( Wiener, 1988). Closer resemblance between systems will mean that the cognitive and information-processing demands on controller and pilot and their awareness of the situation will depend entirely on the ability to obtain, interpret, and assimilate information provided by displays ( Houck, cited in Flach, 1994). Although the definitions of comprehensive and coherent situation representations for controllers and pilots may never be identical, it is reasonable to assert that there will be greater commonality in terms of the types of information represented and the most efficient formats.

Research on information transfer failures ( Billings & Cheaney, 1981) and the importance of party-line information ( Pritchett & Hansman, 1994) reveals that the current voice delivery mechanism is both unreliable and inefficient. The research further shows that in terms of the mental effort and attention required to access and recode information into a usable representation of the situation, digital transfers of traffic, route, and weather information promise to improve both controller and pilot situation awareness.


REFERENCES

Adam G. L., Kelley D. R., & Steinbacher J. G. ( 1994). Reports by airline pilots on airport surface operations: Part 1. Identified problems and proposed solutions for surface navigation and communications (MITRE Tech. Rep. No. MTR94W60). McLean, VA: MITRE Corporation.

Aeronautical Radio, Inc. ( 1992, December). Automatic terminal information service (ATIS): Field evaluation (Prepared for ARD-270, Federal Aviation Administration). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

Billings C. E. ( 1978). "Human factors associated with profile descents". ASRS Fifth Quarterly Report (NASA Tech. Memo TM-78476). Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.

Billings C. E., & Cheaney E. S. ( 1981). Information transfer problems in the aviation system (NASA Tech. Paper 1875). Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.

Blassic E., & Kerns K. ( 1990). Controller evaluation of terminal data link services: Study 1 (MITRE Tech. Rep. No. MTR90W215). McLean, VA: MITRE Corporation.

Cardosi K. ( 1993). An analysis of en route controller-pilot voice communications (Rep. No. DOT/FAA/RD- 93/11). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

Cardosi K. ( 1994). An analysis of tower (local) controller-pilot voice communication (Rep. No. DOT/FAA/RD- 94/15). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

Cardosi K., & Boole P. ( 1991). Analysis of pilot response time to time-critical air traffic control calls (Rep. No. DOT/FAA/RD-91/20). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

Cox M. E. ( 1988). The Mode S data link: Experimental work and possible future applications in western Europe. In Proceedings of the AIAA/IEEE 8th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (pp. 695-703). San Jose, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Data Link Benefits Study Team ( 1995). User benefits of two-way data link ATC communications: Aircraft delay and flight efficiency in congested en route airspace (Rep. No. DOT/FAA/CT-95/4). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

Data Link Benefits Study Team. ( 1996). Benefits of controller-pilot data link ATC communications in terminal airspace (Rep. No. DOT/FAA/CT-9613). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.

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