Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

How does the subsystem interact with other subsystems on the aircraft, especially with regard to the previous questions?

When would using the subsystem be inappropriate or erroneous (as opposed to ineffectual or irrelevant)?

It is widely suspected that those who construct new systems do not fully understand all the ramifications and implications of what they are designing. Answering these questions will challenge the designers of traditional avionics.

Those who have participated in the design of an intelligent interface have found that the scrutiny given the traditional avionics design can produce a more purposeful product. During design, a number of intelligent interface models are constructed of how the entire system will be used from the pilot's perspective. This model building can yield benefits by improving the design as well as incorporating the intelligence interface functionality. For example, I was once preparing the knowledge base for an information manager that was to select from one of several available displays. It used information requirements that were associated with intention structures, and it picked the best display by matching its information display capabilities to the information requirements that had been accumulated from all active intentions.

While I was debugging the knowledge base, I noticed that some displays were never chosen and that other displays were frequently chosen. Naturally, this was assumed to be a fault of the knowledge base, as it was under development. After close observation of the display selection algorithm, I came to the conclusion that the algorithm and knowledge base were correct. The problem was in the displays themselves. Some displays lacked elements that were always demanded. Other displays seemed to support situations that would never occur. To fix the problem, new display designs were prepared. The point of this example is that evaluation of the information content of displays was made possible only by computing a match of displays to situations. Although it would certainly be possible to prepare a written argument that the displays are well designed, computation was a more compelling proof.

The strength of this approach lies in the executable nature of the knowledge. It is not merely that the knowledge can then be applied via execution to produce simulations of the effects of the subsystems along with the associated knowledge. As such, it represents a powerful system engineering capability that is especially useful to those who are responsible for the overall technical project administration. To succeed, those developing this type of system require the support of management to get answers to knowledge engineering questions. These answers are not always simple to obtain but can benefit both the design and the operation of complex systems.


REFERENCES

Foushee H. C., & Helmreich R. L. ( 1988). Group interaction and flight crew performance. In E. L. Wiener & D. C. Nagel (Eds.), Human factors in aviation (pp. 189-227). San Diego: Academic Press.

Geddes N. D. ( 1989). Understanding human operator's intentions in complex systems. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

Greenberg A. D., Small R. L., Zenyuh J. P., & Skidmore M. D. ( 1995). "Monitoring for hazard in flight management systems". European Journal of Operations Research, 84, 5-24.

Hammer J. M., & Small R. L. ( 1995). An intelligent interface in an associate system. In W. B. Rouse (Ed.), Human/technology interaction in complex systems (Vol. 7, pp. 1-44). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

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Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Human Factors in Transportation ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword xi
  • Preface xiii
  • I Introduction 1
  • 1: A Historical Overview of Human Factors in Aviation 3
  • References 13
  • 2: Aviation Research and Development: A Framework for the Effective Practice of Human Factors, or "What Your Mentor Never Told You About a Career in Human Factors . . ." 15
  • 3: Measurement in Aviation Systems 33
  • Summary Appraisal 46
  • References 47
  • 4: Underpinnings of System Evaluation 51
  • References 66
  • 5: Organizational Factors Associated With Safety and Mission Success in Aviation Environments 67
  • Conclusion 100
  • Acknowledgments 101
  • References 101
  • II Human Capabilities and Performance 105
  • 6: Processes Underlying Human Performance 107
  • Conclusion 166
  • References 168
  • 7: Automation in Aviation: A Human Factors Perspective 173
  • Conclusion 189
  • Acknowledgments 190
  • References 190
  • 8: Team Processes and Their Training in Aviation 193
  • References 211
  • 9: Crew Resource Management: A Time for Reflection 215
  • Conclusions 230
  • Acknowledgments 232
  • References 232
  • 10: Fatigue and Biological Rhythms 235
  • References 250
  • 11: Situation Awareness in Aviation Systems 257
  • References 274
  • 12: Aviation Personnel Selection and Training 277
  • References 305
  • III Aircraft 309
  • 13: Pilot Performance 311
  • References 323
  • 14: Controls, Displays, and Workplace Design 327
  • Conclusions 352
  • References 353
  • 15: Flight Simulation 355
  • Conclusion 384
  • Acknowledgments 384
  • References 384
  • 16: Human Factors Considerations in Aircraft Cabin Design 389
  • Conclusion 403
  • References 403
  • 17: Helicopter Human Factors 405
  • Summary 423
  • References 428
  • IV Air Traffic Control 429
  • 18: Air Traffic Control 431
  • Suggested Reading 454
  • 19: Air Traffic Controller Memory: Capabilities, Limitations, and Volatility 455
  • References 488
  • 20: Air Traffic Control Automation 497
  • References 515
  • 21: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control/Flight Deck Integration: Implications of Data-Link Simulation Research 519
  • References 544
  • V Aviation Operations And Design 547
  • 22: Human Factors of Functionality and Intelligent Avionics 549
  • Conclusion 563
  • References 564
  • 23: Weather Information Presentation 567
  • References 588
  • 24: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance 591
  • References 603
  • 25: Human Factors in U.S. Civil Aviation Security 607
  • Epilogue 630
  • References 630
  • 26: Aviation Incident and Accident Investigation 631
  • Conclusion 640
  • References 641
  • 27: Forensic Aviation Human Factors [Accident/Incident Analyses for Legal Proceedings] 643
  • Introduction 644
  • References 668
  • Author Index 669
  • Subject Index 685
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