Handbook of Aviation Human Factors

By Daniel J. Garland; John A. Wise et al. | Go to book overview

and to indicate those areas that need improvement and those that function well. The success of this process does, however, require a symbiotic relationship between the human factors investigator and the designers and evaluators of systems. The problems inherent in this approach have been pointed out elsewhere; for example, Baker and Marshall ( 1988) made the point that "However desirable a co-operation between designers and human factors experts might be, human factors specialists are still not sufficiently involved in the design phase with the result that, often, the anticipated benefits from the system in question are not spelled out in any clearly testable way. Typically, psychologists are simply requested to validate or demonstrate the advantages of a new system" (p. 83). In the United Kingdom at least, very few ATC-related incidents can be traced directly to problems related to inadequate or less than optimal equipment. Rather, poor equipment and facilities tend to be implicated as contributory, not causative factors. Nevertheless, investigations do reveal areas in which equipment development is needed. A good deal of attention has been focused, for example, on alerting systems that inform the pilot or controller of an impending collision. This is well and good and very necessary if airborne collisions are to be avoided. However, relatively less attention has been focused on the development of systems that aid the planning and decision making aspects of the ATC tasks, that is, to prevent the development of situations in which conflicts arise in the first place. The investigation of the human factors aspects of incidents and accidents can be helpful here in highlighting those aspects of the planning and decision making process most in need of support.

Feedback is not, however, restricted to ergonomic and equipment-related issues. The adoption of the system approach discussed earlier facilitates the gathering of information on all aspects of ATC functioning. Human factors recommendations that ensue from investigations can range from fairly basic "quick fixes" to more far reaching issues involving, for example, such aspects as training or the role of management. In Reason's terms ( Reason, 1989), both the "active" and "latent" failures in the system need to be addressed, and careful sifting and analysis of the information gathered from investigations can reveal, not only those areas in which failures have already occurred and errors been made, but also those aspects of the system that if left unaddressed could well lead to problems in the future. The existence of these generic problems, which may not have manifested themselves directly in an incident or whose connection to an occurrence may seem somewhat tenuous, is often difficult to demonstrate. This is one area where the advantages of incident as well as accident investigation are most evident. It may be difficult to demonstrate, say, on the basis of one accident, that a particular problem exists. However, if it can be shown that similar conclusions have been reached as a result of the more numerous incident investigations, the case for a closer examination of the problem and perhaps the initiation of research will be greatly strengthened.


CONCLUSION

The role of human factors in incident and accident investigation has received increased attention in recent years. Even so, the extent to which human factors considerations are taken into account during the investigation process varies from state to state. This chapter has focused on the investigation of civil ATC-related incidents and accidents in the United Kingdom, where a human factors specialist is routinely included as part of a multidisciplinary investigation team.

-640-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 698

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.