Human Rights and Human Liberties: A Radical Reconsideration of the American Political Tradition

By Tibor R. Machan | Go to book overview

Notes to Chapter 1
1. Natural Right and History ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971).
2. Jeremy Bentham, "Anarchical Fallacies," in A. I. Melden (ed.), Human Rights ( Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1970), p. 32.
3. I must stress that rationality is not being emphasized in preference to the value and role of man's emotions. The former is man's distinctive means of consciousness -- how knowledge is achieved -- while the latter are responses man can have to what he values or abhors, and so on. Emotions are not cognitive activites but experiences people have in response to the world, including themselves. There is no conflict between these two features of human life, although conflicting desires have been interpreted as conflicts between desires and judgments, and vice versa, competing judgments have been taken as judgment in conflict with feeling.
4. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 1134b(18)-1135a(14).
5. Margaret Macdonald, "Natural Rights," in Melden, pp. 40-60.
6. Strauss, op. cit., p. 156.
7. Raymond Polin, "The Rights of Man in Hobbes and Locke," in D. D. Raphael (ed.), Political Theory and the Rights of Man ( Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1967), pp. 16-26.
8. C. B. Macpherson, "Natural Rights in Hobbes and Locke," in Raphael, pp. 4-5.
9. Cf. Wilmore Kendall, John Locke and the Doctrine of Majority Rule ( Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1941).
10. Strauss, pp. 202-250.
11. Ibid., p. 248.
12. Quoted in Strauss, p. 249.
13. Ibid., p. 250.
14. Ibid.
15. Alan Ryan, "Locke and the Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie," in David M. Armstrong and C. B. Martin, Locke and Berkeley ( Garden City, N. Y.: Anchor Books, 1968), pp. 231-254. See also John W. Yolton, "Locke and the Law of Nature," Philosophical Review ( Oct. 1958), pp. 477-498.
16. Cf. Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973); The Origins of American Politics ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967); David L. Jacobson, The English Libertarian Heritage ( Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965). In a short but packed essay Murray N. Rothbard discusses the divisions on these ideas among those in the historical professions. In "The American Revolution Reconsidered," Books for Libertarians ( July 1974), pp. 6-8, Rothbard points out that both left (Marxist) and right (conservative) oriented historians tend to denigrate the ideological, philosophical aspects of the revolution -- the former emphasizing class and economic aspects, the latter stressing that the revolution was really quite tradition bound. Neither allows for the power of ideas. Bailyn's several works, however, clearly demonstrate that such "explanations" of the revolution are wrong.
17. Kai Nielsen, "Skepticism and Human Rights," The Monist ( October 1968), p. 594.
18. Tibor R. Machan, The Pseudo-Science of B. F. Skinner ( New Rochelle, N. Y.: Arlington House Publishers, 1974). This work aims to show that Skinner has a Questionable

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Human Rights and Human Liberties: A Radical Reconsideration of the American Political Tradition
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Chapter 1 1
  • Chapter 2 47
  • Chapter 3 59
  • Chapter 4 103
  • Chapter 5 - Government and Human Rights 141
  • Chapter 6 181
  • Chapter 7 231
  • Chapter 8 253
  • Notes to Chapter 1 281
  • Notes to Chapter 3 284
  • Notes to Chapter 4 287
  • Notes to Chapter 5 290
  • Notes to Chapter 6 291
  • Notes to Chapter 7 294
  • Notes to Chapter 8 295
  • Index 297
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