Human Rights and Human Liberties: A Radical Reconsideration of the American Political Tradition

By Tibor R. Machan | Go to book overview

Notes to Chapter 4
1. For a discussion of the kind of justification one would need for moral and political principles see Robin Attfield, "The Logical Status of Moral Utterances," The Journal of Critical Analysis ( July 1972) pp. 70-84.
2. Cf. T. R. Machan, The Pseudo-Science of B. F. Skinner ( New Rochelle, N. Y.: Arlington House Publishers 1974), Chap. 5.
3. Ayn Rand, "Value and Rights," in John Hospers (ed.), Readings in Introductory Philosophical Analysis ( Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968), p. 382.
4. Henry Aiken, "Rights, Human and Otherwise," The Monist ( October 1968) p. 519.
5. This is not the same as the claim that people ought to exercise their liberty in any way they wish or feel or desire or even want. It is perfectly sensible to hold that someone ought to be free from interference from others in his conduct and ought, also, to conduct himself in certain specific ways. For the connection between morality and political liberty see Alan Gewirth , "The 'Is-Ought' Problem Resolved," Presidential Address, 72nd Annual Western Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, April 26, 1974. Consider also the contrast: Ayn Rand: "Force and mind are opposites: morality ends where a gun begins," versus Andrew Kopkind: "morality...starts at the barrel of a gun."
6. Robert Nozick, "Distributive Justice," Philosophy and Public Affairs (Fall 1973) pp. 45-126: see especially Part II, Section 3, "The Original-Position and End-Result Principles," pp. 94-100. (This paper is now a chapter in Nozick Anarchy, State, and Utopia [ New York: Basic Books, 1974 ].)
7. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations ( New York: Macmillan, 1968), No. 66.
8. The present theory, unlike justifications of the free society provided by, e.g., Milton Friedman, F. A. Hayek, Karl Popperet al., does not require the paradoxical doctrine that human beings cannot know what is right or wrong, that they cannot tell when another does wrong, when people are guilty of moral irresponsibility. This view is a paradox for defenders of any political system, since the defense of such a system necessarily involves statements concerning what is right or wrong and, thus, an implicit claim that the advocates have themselves managed to identify something they maintain no human being can identify.
9. F. A. Hayek, "The Results of Human Action but not of Human Design," in Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1969), pp. 96-105. My point here differs from Hayek's somewhat in that Hayek seems to think that whereas designing or planning social order is a feature of a rationalistic viewpoint, allowing for spontaneous forces to operate is more in line with the Humean outlook. On the other hand Hayek admits that by "rationalism" he is not talking about Aristotelian ideas of reason but post-Cartesian ones.
10. F. A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973). Indeed, many today think that central planning is rational while laissez faire is letting irrational forces operate in society. As if having some utopian plan that happens to envision orderliness constituted rationality in political affairs! It is unfortunate, however, that defenders of liberty have allowed the idea of rationality, even if so debased as it is in the above context, to become the property of totalitarians.

-287-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Human Rights and Human Liberties: A Radical Reconsideration of the American Political Tradition
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 304

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.