The earliest multilateral undertaking now in force to which the United States is a party is the convention of May 31, 1865 for the operation of the lighthouse at Cape Spartel, which commands the southern entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. It is reported that the French Consul-General in 1850 recommended the establishment of a lighthouse at this point,1 and that the American Consul made a similar recommendation in 1852.2
The first definite engagement regarding the construction of the lighthouse was embodied in the treaty of November 20, 1861 between Spain and Morocco, in which Morocco agreed to erect the lighthouse and to maintain it. While Spain took the initiative in making provision for the lighthouse, Morocco turned to France for supervision of the work,3 which was started in 1861 and completed in 1864. While Morocco agreed to pay the cost of construction, it evidently did not meet the obligation entirely, as it is reported that of the total cost of $64,400 Morocco paid $51,200 and France $13,200.4 After the lighthouse was completed the powers notified Morocco that arrangements must be made for permanent neutrality.5 Evidently the result of this demand was the____________________
The same, p. 68.