Preserving the Radical Stronghold The Election in Moscow
Judith S. Kullberg
ON DECEMBER 12, 1993, Moscow reaffirmed its support for fundamental reform. Just as in 1989, 1990, and 1991, Muscovites overwhelmingly supported democratic candidates and parties. Badly beaten in the country as a whole, radical and moderate reformist parties triumphed in Moscow, garnering 60.5 percent of the vote on the party-list ballot. Support for the radicals was particularly impressive: Russia's Choice received 34.7 percent of the Moscow vote, its highest plurality in any region of the country and more than twice its share of the national vote. Candidates nominated or supported by Russia's Choice also won eleven of the city's fifteen single- seat races and dominated in the contests for seats in the new Moscow City Duma. Parties and candidates of the extreme opposition were overwhelmed by the democratic landslide. The combined total for the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR), the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF), and Agrarian Party of Russia was only 25.3 percent. Although the LDPR led on the national party-list ballot with 22.9 percent, it gathered only 12.8 percent of the Moscow vote, its fourth worst showing in all the regions.
How did radical reformism prevail in Moscow, as well as a few other large cities and northern regions, against the tide of support for the opposition? The standard economic explanation for the 1993 results is that the