The trend toward localization in Russian politics is discussed in reference to
the April 25, 1993, referendum by Wendy Slater, "No Victors in the Russian Referendum," RFE/RL Research Report, vol. 2, no. 21 ( May 21, 1993), p. 17.
John J. Stephan, The Russian Far East: A History ( Stanford University Press, 1994), p. 84. Chinese traders in modern-day Vladivostok continue to refer to the
city as Haishenwei, and even in 1993 many of the smaller border towns in the krai
bore their original Chinese names. This failure to Russify border areas helped bring
historical fear of "yellow peril" into the immediate present.
The national figure for the same period is 35 percent. Some Primor'e industries fared particularly poorly. Production in the chemical and petrochemical industries, for example, dropped nearly 60 percent, and cement production fell by 71.8
percent. Primorskii Krai v 1993 gody: statisticheskii yezhegodnik (Primorskii krai
in 1993: a statistical yearbook) ( Goskomstat Rossii Primorskii krayevoi komitet
gosudarstvennoi statistiki, Vladivostok), pp. 99-101. Figures for Russia from Rossiiskii Statisticheskii Ezhegodnik (Russian Statistical Yearbook) ( Moscow: Gosudarstvennii Komitet Rossiiskoi Federatsii po Statistike, 1995), p. 311.
Figures from Dal'nii Vostok Rossii Ekonomicheskii Yezhegodnik 1992 (Economic Yearbook of the Russian Far East, 1992) (Khabarovsk: Economic Research
Institute), cited in Russian Far East Update, vol. 3, no. 4 ( April 1993), p. 8.
Direct trade fell by 4 percent in 1993. Ekonomicheskii Yezhegodnik:
Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoe razvitie Primorskogo kraya (Statistical Yearbook: The
economic development of Primorskii krai) ( Vladivostok: Mezhdunarodnyi institut
kon"yuktury i prognozirovaniya, 1994), p. 23.
In June 1991, 64 percent of Primor'e voters voted for Yeltsin. The average
for Russia was 59.7 percent. In the April 1993 referendum, 65.9 percent of Primor'e respondents answered "yes" to the question: "Do you trust the president of
the Russian Federation?" The national average was 59.9 percent.
Average rating for the Primor'e delegation for the 1993-95 period. Michael McFaul
Nikolai Petrov, Politicheskii al'manakh Rossii (Political Almanac of
Russia) ( Moscow: Camegie Endowment for International Peace, 1995), p. 299.
Peter Kirkow's characterization of Nazdratenko as a regional "warlord" conforms with the analysis in this chapter. Peter Kirkow ", Regional Warlordism in
Russia: The Case of Primorskii Krai," in Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 47, no. 6 ( September 1995), pp. 923-47.
Alexandra Vacroux, "Privatization in the Regions: Primorskiy Kray," in Russia: Creating Private Enterprises and Efficient Markets ( Washington, D.C.: The
World Bank, The Private Sector Development Department, 1994), p. 41, cited in Kirkow, "Regional Warlordism in Russia," p. 927.
After several failed attempts to hold gubernatorial elections, Nazdratenko
successfully won local electoral mandate in December 1995, when Primor'e was
one of only five subjects of the Federation permitted to hold gubernatorial elections