(unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Sociology, University
of Chicago, 1956). Many old-timers, however, both in schoolteaching and
in the mills, continue to resist retirement, their grumpy habituation to work
being the only structure their lives have. Cf.
Eugene A. Friedmann and Robert J. Havighurst, The Meaning of Work and Retirement, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
Cf. E. L. Ullman, "Amenities as a Factor in Regional Growth," Geographic
Review, Vol. 44, 1954, p. 119. Among less mobile or redecoratable indus-
tries there is some resurgence today of management-sponsored recreation
programs, which received a big boost during the "progressive management"
movement of the 1920's. Indeed, what was worth a couple of chapters
three decades ago (e.g., Lee K. Frankel and
Alexander Fleisher, The
Human Factor in Industry, New York: Macmillan, 1920, Chaps. 9 and
10) has now become a speciality for submanagers (e.g., Jackson M.
Anderson, Industrial Recreation, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955) and
one in which unions are beginning to stake out their own claims.
Fred H. Blum, Toward a Democratic Work Process, New York: Harper, 1953, p. 97.
5. WORK AND RETIREMENT ·
E. A. Friedmann
R. J. Havighurst
The Older Worker and the Meaning of Work
The . . . five functions [of work]--income, regulating of life-activity,
identification, association, and meaningful life-experience--are . . . found
in any situation defined by society as a "job."1 . . . [Obviously work] does
not have the same meaning for all individuals. We can gather this impression merely by listening to people talk about their jobs--the insurance
salesman telling about his troubles and excitement in "cracking" a tough
customer, the executive describing the responsibilities and worries of his
job, the assembly-line worker complaining about the monotony of his
job yet bragging that he is the best worker in the plant. Meanings vary
as jobs vary and as people vary. Yet there are some common threads
which run through the diversity.
The significance of the job, as interpreted by the worker himself,
can be regarded as varying in two fundamental ways. First, it differs according to the particular recognition the person has made of the part
which the job has played in his life. Certainly, we can expect that in our
culture practically all workers recognize their job as a way of earning a
living. However, we may also discover that many individuals have come
to recognize other functions of the job as well. For example, some may
view it in terms of the prestige (or lack of prestige) it gives them in the
community; for others it may be the chief source of contact they have with
the outside world, or it may be regarded as the locus of association with
friends and fellow workers. The recognitions made of the functions of
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Man, Work, and Society:A Reader in the Sociology of Occupations.
Contributors: Sigmund Nosow - Author, William H. Form - Author.
Publisher: Basic Books.
Place of publication: New York.
Publication year: 1962.
Page number: 41.
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