Man, Work, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Occupations

By Sigmund Nosow; William H. Form | Go to book overview
a job, giving the contractor's name, the location of the job and to notify this Union when the job is completed. He shall see that there is a Steward on the job at once and that the Steward shall be one of the last three men laid off. He shall not call for the line unless the course is laid out and the bricks are walled for the next course . . . . When bricklayers and stonemasons are hired, he shall direct them to the Steward before allowing them to start work so that their card or permit may be inspected, and he shall not lay off members of this Union to make room for outsiders. At no time shall the foreman be allowed to work more than one shift in any twenty-four (24) hours, but he has the right to be on the job at any time before or after working hours but not to lay brick or act in a supervisory capacity."
8.
William Haber, Industrial Relations in the Building Industry, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930, p. 218.
9.
Interviews with 500 skilled tradesmen in Detroit in 1941 indicated the considerable variation between the trades in the supervisory experience possessed by the members. Approximately 87 per cent of the carpenters claimed supervisory experience. The percentage of bricklayers was 58 per cent. This compares to 6 per cent for iron workers, and 12 per cent for cement finishers.
10.
For an account of employer-employee relations see Royal E. Montgomery, Industrial Relations in the Chicago Building Trades, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927; F. I. Ryan, Industrial Relations in the San Francisco Building Trades, Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936; Handbook of the Building Trades Employers' Association of the City of New York, New York, 1938.
11.
Of the 215,050 construction concerns reporting in the Census of Business of 1939, 87.2 per cent of all concerns had a volume of less than $25,000 for the year. Census of Business, Construction, Vol. 4, 1939, pp. 16-17.
12.
The Bricklayer, Mason and Plasterer, Vol. 33, September 1930, p. 195.

3. WAGES AND WORKER SOLIDARITY ·

W. Lloyd Warnerand J. O. Low


Women, Wages and Solidarity

Having discovered that the degree of skill of a job bears no predictable relations to the rate of pay or to the evaluation of the job by workers or the community, we found it necessary to seek the various bases on which management, the workers, and the community made their evaluations of jobs and workers. These must be known and demonstrated before the internal social structure of the shoe factories can be fully understood. It is also necessary to understand the external structure of the factories, for this structure is today dominated to a large extent by conflicting values.

A fact immediately noticed when pay rates are examined is the discrepancy between the earnings of men and women.1 The mean rate for all male operatives in the factory was 59.5 cents per hour; for all women, 40.5 cents per hour, only a trifle over two thirds of the men's average. This same differential was maintained in the stitching department where the 306

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