Man, Work, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Occupations

By Sigmund Nosow; William H. Form | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VII
PROFESSIONS

The basic characteristics of the professions are more or less uniformly recognized today, although specific decisions as to which occupations are professions might depend upon which characteristics the classifier emphasizes. Greenwood, in "Attributes of a Profession," suggests that occupations may be placed along a continuum with the universally recognized professions such as medicine, law, or college teaching at one end and the manual occupations at the other.

In general, the professions are seen as "intellectual" occupations, based upon a long process of formal assimilation of theoretical knowledge upon which professional activity is based. "It is this characteristic, the possession of an intellectual technique acquired by special training, which can be applied to some sphere of everyday life," says Carr-Saunders, "that forms the distinguishing mark of a profession." Although agreeing in general, T. H. Marshall feels that the "essence of professionalism" is the individual qualities of the professional which makes for individual judgment and the assumption of individual responsibility "not concerned with self-interest, but with the welfare of the client."

Interestingly enough, the professions as a special class in the family of occupations are perhaps most anomalous. Rooted in the traditionalism of medieval Europe, they alone among occupations made a relatively successful transition from the protection of cloister to the protection of the community. While the guilds of merchants and artisan were destroyed by a changing social order which saw the rise of industrial capitalism, the guilds of professionals (which were really groups of teachers and students attached to the universities under ecclesiastical control) retained an honorable and relatively unchanged position in the community. This process is described by Carr-Saunders in his article.

Despite such changes as rising capitalism, the restructuring of the class system, the increasing importance of the market, and redistributions of political power, the professions maintained their guild-like character

-197-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Man, Work, and Society: A Reader in the Sociology of Occupations
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 618

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.