Tables and Figures
Tables
2.1 America's Largest Nonfinancial Corporations18
2.2 America's Largest Commercial Banks19
2.3 America's Largest Insurance Companies19
2.4 America's Largest Investment Firms20
2.5 America's Largest Exporters23
2.6 The World's Largest Industrial Corporations24
2.7 Mass Attitudes toward the Accumulation of Wealth32
2.8 Even the Poor Have More36
2.9 America's Belief in Social Mobility37
3.1 The Billion Dollar Foundations43
3.2 Funding the Policy Formulation Process47
4.1 The Cost of a Seat in Congress70
4.2 Sources of Campaign Cash70
4.3 Characteristics of Individual Campaign Contributors71
4.4 Presidential Election: Twenty-five Largest Contributors , 199674
4.5 Congressional Elections: Twenty-five Largest Contributors75
4.6 Soft Money: Twenty-five Largest Contributors, Congressional Elections, 199876
4.7 Campaign Contributions to the Parties by Elite Sector81
5.1 Types of Lobbyists86
5.2 Washington's Largest Lobbying Spenders89
5.3 Top Washington Lobbying Firms93
5.4 The Superlawyer Firms94
5.5 The Growth of PACs95
5.6 The Distribution of PAC Money in Congress96
5.7 Fifty Largest PAC Contributors, Congressional Elections, 199897
6.1 Declining Mass Confidence in America's Institutional Leadership113
7.1 Mass Views of Their Own Influence in Policymaking120
7.2 Mass Confidence in Institutions121
7.3 Incumbent Advantage125
7.4 Congressional Leadership PAC Contributions128
7.5 Party Unity in Congress129
7.6 Standing Committees in Congress130
8.1 Major U.S. Government Regulatory Bureaucracies146

-vi-

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Top down Policymaking
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Tables and Figures vi
  • Preface ix
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT x
  • Chapter 1 Policymaking from the Top Down 1
  • Chapter 2 Power, Wealth, and Policymaking 16
  • Chapter 3 The Policy Formulation Process 39
  • Chapter 4 The Leadership Selection Process 65
  • Chapter 5 The Interest Group Process 85
  • Chapter 6 The Opinion Making Process 103
  • Chapter 7 The Policy Legitimation Process 116
  • Chapter 8 The Policy Implementation Process 137
  • Chapter 9 The Policy Evaluation Process 158
  • Notes 175
  • Index 179
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