Environmental Policy Making in Egypt

By Salwa Sharawi Jum ah | Go to book overview

Chapter 4
Policy Assessment
Policy assessment or policy evaluation is an essential stage in policy analysis. There are several approaches in evaluating policies. 1 One of these approaches tends to emphasize the outcome of a certain policy and to what extent it is in congruent with the stated objectives of that policy. For instance, Peters2 argues that policy evaluation should be based on identification of clear goals and measurement of the extent to which such goals have been attained. Another approach tends to focus on the impact of a certain policy, in so doing this approach tends to focus on impact assessment as a tool for policy evaluation. For example, according to Dye, 3 policy evaluation is concerned with assessing the impact or consequences of public policy. Recognizing the problems surrounding stated policy goals and the actual policy goals in the first approach and the methodological difficulties in measuring the impact of a certain policy of the second approach, Matthew Cahn developed a six-element index to evaluate policy success that addresses policy coverage, implementation, and outcomes. 4 In evaluating environmental policy in Egypt, I will use some of Cahn's indicators that are relevant to the Egyptian Society. Those indicators are as follows:
To what extent does environmental policy treat environmental problems and regulations in an independent and comprehensive way?
To what extent does policy encourage behavior changes both on corporate and individual levels?
To what extent does policy employ rational strategic mechanisms to maximize compliance?
To what extent does compliance help maximize implementation potential?
To what extent have/will these policies result in the anticipated outcomes?

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Environmental Policy Making in Egypt
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • FIGURES, TABLES, AND APPENDIXES vi
  • Foreword vii
  • Preface ix
  • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiii
  • Introduction Conceptual Framework 1
  • Chapter 1- Policy Initiation and Agenda Setting 4
  • SUMMARY 33
  • Chapter 2- Policy Formulation 35
  • Chapter 3- Decision Making Process 45
  • Chapter 4- Policy Assessment 54
  • Conclusion 60
  • Appendix 1. Programs and projects initiated by TCOE with various donor agencies and nations 63
  • Appendix 2. Environmental NGOs included in the study 65
  • Appendix 3. Unemployment rates, 1986 (%) 67
  • Appendix 4. Income distribution and poverty, 1990 68
  • Appendix 5. Urbanization 69
  • Appendix 6. Demographic profile 70
  • Appendix 7. Natural resources 71
  • Appendix 8. Health profile 72
  • Appendix 9. Education flows 73
  • Appendix 10. Education imbalances, 1990 74
  • Appendix 11. Communication profile 75
  • Appendix 12. Labor force 76
  • Appendix 13. Labor force 77
  • Appendix 14. Food security 78
  • Appendix 15. Resource flow imbalances, 1990 79
  • Appendix 16. National income accounts 80
  • Appendix 17. Economic performance 81
  • Notes 83
  • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 89
  • Index 95
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