Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict: the Basic Documents

By Michel Oksenberg; Lawrence R. Sullivan et al. | Go to book overview

Preface

MICHEL OKSENBERG WITH LAWRENCE R. SULLIVAN

Beijing has been the setting for many moments of high drama during the Chinese people's tortuous search for national wealth and righteous rule. As a center of both government and intellectual life, it has witnessed struggles for power by extraordinarily willful politicians, militarists, and popular movements. Its citizens have periodically suffered from invading armies--foreign and domestic-- while in this century the city's intellectuals, students, and workers have repeatedly voiced their grievances and hopes for more enlightened and democratic government to transform China into a modern nation.

Politically, the capital embraces a duality. It is physically dominated by the imposing structures from which the Ming ( 1368-1644), Qing ( 1644-1911), Republican ( 1911-1927), and Communist ( 1949- ) leaders and bureaucrats issued their edicts and performed the rituals of rule: the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven, the Premier's Office of the Republican government, the Great Hall of the People, the Zhongnanhai headquarters of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), and the many ministerial offices in the city. But equally important are the memories associated with particular locations where protests and political actions have occurred. Scattered about Beijing, but generally concentrated within or near the Forbidden City, are the places where Kang Youwei and his associates presented their petition to the emperor in 1898; where May Fourth demonstrators paraded for democracy in 1919; where martyrs perished during the 1920s after opposing various warlord oppressors; and where December Ninth movement leaders organized their opposition in 1935-36 to the ineffectual government response to Japanese aggression. Since the Communist revolution in 1949, Tiananmen Square (whose vast space the new regime carved out of the city in 1950) has often been the focal point of mass political activity: from the orchestrated parades of the early 1950s to the massive Red Guard rallies in 1966 when Mao Zedong mobilized youth discontent to attack his political enemies in the CPC. Nearby, in Xidan, is the wall where activists pasted their posters in 1978-79 calling for democracy and freedom of expression, while also denouncing China's Communist system in terms that would reverberate throughout Beijing in the spring of 1989.

The buildings that have housed past and present governments are daily reminders

-ix-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Beijing Spring, 1989: Confrontation and Conflict: the Basic Documents
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 406

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.