INDISPUTABLY the greatest personality in Roman history, Caesar, in addition to his epoch-making achievements as a statesman and as a general, showed throughout his career a keen interest in various branches of literature and science. His writings included commentaries on the Gallic and on the Civil War, a grammatical treatise on Analogy which is said to have been composed during a journey from Italy to Transalpine Gaul, a work dealing with some problems of astronomy, a pamphlet against Cato Minor, written in the camp at Munda in answer to the panegyric which Cicero had published shortly after Cato's suicide at Utica, some poems, and many letters and speeches. Of these the commentaries alone have come down to us, the others being known only through the testimony of contemporary or later authors or from a few fragments which have survived.
He was born in 100 B. C. The Julian gens, to which he belonged, was of patrician rank, and more than one of its members had already attained to the consulship. Of his early life and education, little is known, but one of his tutors is said to have been the Gaul M. Antonius Gnipho, a rhetorician of some repute. Through the marriage of his father's sister to Marius, he was during his boyhood and youth brought in close contact with the great popular leader, and this connection undoubtedly did much to develop in him the democratic spirit which helped to make him the idol of the Roman masses. His wife was Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, the famous adherent of Marius. He began his