Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

By Christina H. Gladwin; Center for African Studies University of Florida | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
One of the difficulties in discussing statistics for sub-Saharan Africa, especially data for the oil boom years, is the tremendous weight which the Nigerian economy carried in the overall economy of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the contrary trends in the economies of the oil-exporting vs. the low-income, oil-importing economies. In 1980, for example, Nigeria accounted for over 48 percent of the GDP of sub-Saharan Africa. With the decline in oil prices since 1983, Nigeria's economic decline has been precipitous and dramatic; in 1986 Nigeria's weight in the overall economy of sub-Saharan Africa had shrunk to only 28 percent.
2.
"The measures associated with 'orthodox' stabilization programs are thus, for the most part, not imposed by external agencies, but arise out of the imperatives of domestic economic stability" ( Berg 1989: 7).
3.
For the low-income economies the savings ratio is even lower, having fallen to only 7 percent of GDP in 1987 ( World Bank 1989a: 227).

REFERENCES

Berg Elliot
1989 Structural Adjustment and Its Critics. Unpublished paper, Elliot Berg Associates, Washington, D.C.

Chenery Hollis
1979 Structural Change and Development Policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Johnston Bruce F., and P. Kilby
1975 Agriculture and Structural Transformation: Economic Strategies in Late-Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Meier Gerald M., and William F. Steel
1989 Industrial Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.

Svedberg Peter
1987 The Export Performance of Sub-Saharan Africa. Institute for International Economic Studies, University of Stockholm, and World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University, Helsinki.

UNICEF
1987 Adjustment with a Human Face. Giovanni Cornia, Richard Jolly and Francis Stewart, eds. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
1989 African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation, E/ECA/CM.15/6/ Rev.3. New York: United Nations.

World Bank
1981 Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Agenda for Action. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

-44-

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