Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

By Christina H. Gladwin; Center for African Studies University of Florida | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
The study "Managing Agricultural Development in Africa (MADIA)" was a five-year study ( 1984-89) undertaken by the World Bank to explain the nature and sources of the agricultural crisis in Africa, particularly the extent to which it originated in resource endowments, historical and contemporary events, external and internal policies, and the economic and political environment. The MADIA study involved detailed analysis of Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Senegal. In addition to the World Bank, seven donors, USAID, UKODA (The British Overseas Development Administration), DANIDA (Danish International Development Agency), SIDA (Swedish International Development Agency), and the French and German governments and the EC (European Community), participated in the study.
2.
Available estimates for the percentage of female-headed households in some African countries include: Malawi 34 percent ( World Bank 1989i), Kenya 33 percent ( World Bank 1989g), Ghana 29 percent ( Youssef and Hetler 1983), Mali 15 percent ( Youssef and Hetler 1984), Sudan 24 percent ( Youssef and Hetler 1984), and Zambia 47 percent ( World Bank 1989s). To date, the information from Malawi and Kenya seems to be the more complete and reliable, although Ghana has also improved its capacity to incorporate gender-specific household-headship information into census tables and publications.
3.
For instance, in 1980, the shares of female and male employment in manufacturing to total employment were 15 percent and 10 percent, respectively, in Japan and 9 percent and 13 percent, respectively, in Korea. In Japan, whereas the growth rate in nonagricultural employment for women was 45 percent ( 1960-70) and 20 percent ( 1970-80), the rate for men was 35 percent and 16 percent. During the same period, however, average female earnings within the same industries were consistently less than half the male earnings in 1965 and by 1980 this differential had increased in several countries. Becker also reports a similar situation for other OECD countries ( Lele 1986).
4.
In an interesting paper on women's legal capacity and constitutional rights, Marsha Freeman stresses that no constitutional guarantees, such as those provided by most developing countries, are meaningful without the political will of governments and the capacity of the legal systems and institutions at large to enforce them ( Freeman 1990).
5.
In the Gambia, for instance, women are active in the production and sale of many cash crops. With the introduction of irrigated rice the yields per unit of land increased from 1.3 to 5.9 tons as the share of women's rice fields dropped from 91 percent to 10 percent, reflecting a switch from rice as an individually grown crop under the control of women to a communal crop under the control of men. The benefit of communal cultivation through extended family was greater food security through reduction of

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