Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

By Christina H. Gladwin; Center for African Studies University of Florida | Go to book overview

7
The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programs on Rural Women in Tanzania

Ruth Meena

From the mid- 1970s, Tanzania started to experience economic decline and stagnation. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) stagnated at a rate of 1.5 percent per annum while the real per capita income declined at about 2 percent per annum ( Havenvik Kjaerby et al. 1988) In fact, the 1985 GDP was 10 percent below the 1978 level. Taking population increases into consideration, the real GDP declined at a rate of 12 percent from 1979-85. The rate of inflation has also been increasing. Before 1972 the inflation rate was below 5 percent, but by 1974 it had increased to 10 percent, reaching a peak of 26 percent in 1978. Because of the coffee boom in 1976/77 it decreased to 13 percent, only to increase during the 1980s to range between 20-40 percent.

The crisis has been caused by an accumulation of factors. These include: a deterioration of terms of trade, stagnation of agriculture, the war between Tanzania and Uganda, and fiscal policies which perpetuated the crisis. Between 1977-81, the terms of trade index fell from 133 to 85, or 15 percent below the 1972 level. Agriculture also declined during the 1970s because of drought and declining world prices. The situation worsened when the Tanzanian-Ugandan war forced the government to spend about $500 million or 10 percent of annual GDP.

In responding to the crisis, the Tanzanian government was forced into drawing over its gold reserves at the same time as it requested additional credit from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to temporarily solve its balance of payment problems. The government of Tanzania was allowed to draw on the low conditional oil facility and received compen

Ruth Meena is Senior Lecturer and Ph.D. candidate, Department of Political
Science and Public Administration, University of Dar es Salaam. She is also a mem-
ber of the Women's Research and Documentation Projects (WRDP). She has been
awarded a Fulbright Senior Fellowship in 1984 and has won the IDRC/Ford
Foundation Social Science Research Competitions for Eastern Africa in 1984 and
1986.

-169-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 418

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.