Leaving the Cave: Evolutionary Naturalism in Social-Scientific Thought

By Pat Duffy Hutcheon | Go to book overview

Three
Pioneers of Modern Social Science Montaigne, Hobbes and Hume

Michel de Montaigne (1533-92)

This is an excellent foppery of the world that, when we are sick in fortune -- often the surfeit of our own behaviour -- we make guilty of our disasters the sun, the moon, and the stars; as if we were villains by necessity, fools by heavenly compulsion...and all that we are evil in, by a divine thrusting on.

-- William Shakespeare, King Lear

E rasmus had been right in feeling pessimistic about his world, for he died on the eve of one of the grimmest periods in European history. With Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy, and his consequent purging of loyal Catholics like Thomas More, England officially broke with the Church of Rome. Yet the new religion seemed Protestant in little more than name, for its rituals were largely unaltered, and reading the Bible was still forbidden. Meantime, across the channel, King Francis I of France remained with Rome. So, too, did that other great power, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However, Francis, in his ongoing war with Charles, took advantage of the growing schism in Christendom by manoeuvering for aid from Protestants as well as from the Turks who were threatening central Europe from the south.

The war for political supremacy between these two Catholic monarchs ( Charles, a last vestige of the old order, and Francis, a harbinger of the new) was to last for almost forty years. Massive social destruction was its legacy. It was followed almost immediately by the onset of the Huguenot religious wars within France. This civil strife took the form of ferocious outbreaks between Catholics and Protestants that were to continue sporadically for another thirty years. The worst of these was the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572, when two thousand Protestant Huguenots were slain by a Paris mob.

Outside of France religious strife was similarly endemic. No sooner had Protestantism been established in Scandinavia and the northern German states than it began to disintegrate into warring factions, each with its own doctrinal interpretations "writ in stone." Although Lutheranism prevailed in the north,

References for this chapter are on p. 55-56.

-30-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Leaving the Cave: Evolutionary Naturalism in Social-Scientific Thought
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 504

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.