History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States - Vol. 1

By Emory R. Johnson; T. W. Van Metre et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XIV. EXPANSION OF INTERNAL COMMERCE, 1830 TO 1860.
Increased area and population of United States , 224.
Development of industries , 225.
Growth of manufactures , 226.
Extension of transportation facilities , 227.
Trade of Eastern with Central States via Erie Canal and Great Lakes , 230.
The grain trade, 230.
Development of the Great Lakes district , 234.
Trade on the Pennsylvania Canal system, 235.
Trade via the railroads between the East and West, 237.
Growth of inland commerce in the Southern States , 240.
Internal trade between the North and the South, 241.
Active period of the river trade , 241.
The commerce of the Mississippi Valley , 242,
of New Orleans , 243,
of St. Louis , 243,
of Cincinnati , 244.
Diversion of traffic from the Mississippi River to the eastern railroads, 247.
The domestic slave trade , 248.
The internal trade of the far West, 248.
Summary , 250.

The years between 1830 and 1860 witnessed a remarkable expansion of the United States in area, population, and wealth. At the beginning of the period the gross area of the country, which had been increased once since the acquisition of Louisiana, by the purchase of Florida in 1819, was 1,792,223 square miles. By the annexation of Texas in 1845, a vast tract containing 376,000 square miles was acquired and the settlement of the Oregon dispute during the following year resulted in the addition of 285,000 square miles more. The treaties with Mexico in 1848 and 1853 secured to the possession of the United States the immense territory of 573,000 square miles lying between Texas and the Pacific Ocean, bringing the total area of the national domain up to 3,026,000 square miles.

At the end of each decade of the thirty years the population of the entire country was found to have increased a third or more over what it had been ten years before, the total number of people rising from 12,866,020 in 1830 to 31,443,321 in 1860. The increase was not uniform in the different sections. The South Atlantic States showed a percentage of increase for the entire period that was less than half the percentage of total increase, and the North Atlantic States also failed to keep up with the country as a whole. The southern division of the Central States, including Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Kentucky, had an increase of more than 40 per cent during each decade between 1830 and 1850, and an increase of 34 per cent between 1850 and 1860. In the northern division of the Central States there was a most remarkable growth of population. This section, made up in 1830 of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Missouri, had a population of 1,610,473. Including the partly settled territories of Wisconsin and Iowa, this group had, in 1840, a population of 3,351,542, an increase of more than 100 per cent. The number of people in Indiana in 1840 (685,866) was almost exactly double what it had been ten years before; the number in Illinois (476,183) was three times as great, the population of Missouri had more than doubled; and that of Michigan (212,267) increased nearly seven-fold. By 1850, the

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