Emotional Development in Atypical Children

By Michael Lewis; Margaret Wolan Sullivan | Go to book overview

others. It is not familiar to the infants and they have no expectation about it. Most infants fail to show distress despite the fact that an adult is not permitting them to move their arms as they would like. The explanation for this finding may be that the infants are too young to be frustrated in such a situation. Stenberg, Campos, and Emde ( 1983) observed that anger to arm restraint did not emerge until 4 to 6 months of age. It has been hypothesized that anger is not felt until an infant has the cognitive capacity to understand that some instrumental activity might accomplish a goal ( Darwin, 1872/ 1965; Lewis, 1991). Such an understanding of means-ends relationships does not generally emerge until at least 4 months of age ( Piaget, 1952). We see it during the contingency procedure because the infants can learn that their actions accomplish a goal. Infants who fall to learn the contingency do not show frustration when the contingency is no longer in effect. Thus, we suspect that our subjects did not have the capacity to be frustrated by their inability to move their arms for 30 seconds, reducing the amount of negative affect expressed.

Sound, prospective investigations of the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on emotional functioning of the children are only in the early stages. The evidence to date, suggesting particular difficulties in the ability to recover emotional control following perturbations, indicates that this may be a critical area of examination. The capacity to recover one's equilibrium and move on to new situations is fundamental to the development of satisfying and nurturant social relationships, as well as to the capacity to adapt and to learn from objects, situations, and the people in one's environment. Further research must confirm and refine our understanding of the phenomenon and its etiology and approaches to modifying detrimental consequences.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Preparation of this chapter was supported by grant #DA07109 to Michael Lewis from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.


REFERENCES

Alessandri S. M., Sullivan M. W., Bendersky M., & Lewis M. ( 1995). "Temperament in cocaine-exposed infants". In M. Lewis & M. Bendersky (Eds.), Mothers, babies, and cocaine: The role of toxins in development (pp. 273-285). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaurn Associates.

Alessandri S. M., Sullivan M. W., Imaizumi S., & Lewis M. ( 1993). "Learning and emotional responsivity in cocaine-exposed infants". Developmental Psychology, 29, 989-997.

-103-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Emotional Development in Atypical Children
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 286

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.