Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities

By Edward J. Kameenui; David Chard et al. | Go to book overview
took place when necessary. Wong et al. ( 1986) required that students achieve mastery in applying the self-questioning steps and students had to continue doing the exercises (sometimes daily for 2 months) until they achieved mastery. Unfortunately, the other studies cited in this review did not report the level of mastery students achieved in generating questions.
Fitting Things Together
How might the results from these three areas of research fit together? First, the research allows us to articulate a major goal of education: helping students develop well-organized knowledge structures. In well-developed structures, the parts are well organized, the pieces are well connected, and the bonds between the connections are strong.We also know something about how to help students acquire these structures.
1. Present new material in small steps to that the working memory does not become overloaded.
2. Help students develop an organization for the new material.
3. Guide student practice by (a) supporting students during initial practice, and (b) providing for extensive student processing.
4. When teaching higher level tasks, support students by providing them with cognitive strategies.
5. Help students learn to use the cognitive strategies by providing them with procedural prompts and modeling the use of these procedural prompts.
6. Provide for extensive student practice.

SUMMARY

Thirty years ago, particularly with the publication of the first Handbook of Research on Teaching ( Gage, 1963) and the investment of public and private funds into research, we began an extensive program of research and development in education. This chapter is an attempt to highlight some of the major results that have been obtained in the area of instruction, results which have relevance for today's teachers and students.


REFERENCES

Alvermann D. E. ( 1981). "The compensatory effect of graphic organizers on descriptive text". Journal of Educational Research, 75, 44-48.

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