Harm to the Environment: The Right to Compensation and the Assessment of Damages

By Peter Wetterstein | Go to book overview

Treaties
1958Geneva Convention on the High Seas (GCHS). Adopted: 29 April
1958; entered into force: 30 September 1962: 450 UNTS 82.
1959Antarctic Treaty. Adopted: 1 December 1959; entered into force:
23 June 1961: 402 UNTS 71. Protocol on Environmental Protec-
tion of 4 October 1991, not in force: 30 ILM 1461.
1960Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
( 1960 Paris Convention). Adopted: 29 July 1960; entered into force:
1 April 1968: [ 1968] UKTS 69. Amended 1964. Amended 1982;
entered into force: 7 October 1988: [ 1989] UKTS 6.
1962Convention on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships. Adopted:
25 May 1962; Not in force: 57 AJIL 268.
1963Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention on Third Party
Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. Adopted: 31 January 1963;
entered into force: 4 December 1974: 2 ILM 685. Amended 1964:
[ 1975] UKTS 44. Amended 1982; entered into force: 1 August 1991:
[ 1983] UKTS 23.
1963Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage ( 1963 Vienna
Convention). Adopted: 21 May 1963; entered into force: 12 Novem-
ber 1977: 2 ILM 727.
1967Treaty of Principles Governing the Activities of States in Explora-
tion and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial
Bodies (Outer Space Treaty). Adopted: 27 January 1967; entered
into force: 10 October 1967: 610 UNTS 205.
1969Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Adopted: 23 May 1969;
entered into force: 27 January 1980: 8 ILM 679.
1969International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution
Damage (CLC). Adopted: 29 November 1969; entered into force:
19 June 1975: 9 ILM 45. 1976 Protocol: entered into force: 8 April
1981: 16 ILM 617. 1984 Protocol: never entered into force: 23 ILM
177. Protocol of 1992 to Amend the 1969 International Convention
on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage ( 1992 Protocol to the
CLC: adopted: 27 November 1992; entered into force: 30 May
1996: IMO Dec. LEG/CONF.9/15.
1969International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas
in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties (the Intervention Convention).
Adopted: 29 November 1969; entered into force: 6 May 1975: 9
ILM 25. 1973 Protocol: entered into force: 30 March 1983: 13
ILM 605.
1971Convention Relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Car-
riage of Nuclear Material. Adopted: 17 December 1971; entered
into force: 15 July 1975: 1971 UNJYB 100.
1971International Convention on the Establishment of an International
Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (Fund Conven-
tion). Adopted: 18 December 1971; entered into force: 16 October
1978: 11 ILM 284. Amended 1976; entered into force: 22 Novem-
ber 1994: 16 ILM 621. 1984 Protocol: never entered into force: 23
ILM 195. 1992 Protocol to Amend the Intemational Convention
on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation
for Oil Pollution Damage ( 1992 Protocol to the Fund Convention):
adopted: 27 November 1992; entered into force: 30 May 1996:
IMO Dec. LEG/CONF.9/16.
1972Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space
Objects. Adopted: 29 March 1972; entered into force: 1 September
1972: 961 UNTS 187.
1972Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and
Natural Heritage (the World Heritage Convention). Adopted: 23
November 1972; entered into force: 17 December 1975: 11 ILM
1358.
1972Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution By Dumping of
Wastes and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention). Adopted:
29 December 1972; entered into force: 30 August 1975: 11 ILM
1294. Amended 1978; entered into force: 11 March 1979. Amended
1980: entered into force: 11 March 1981. Amended 1989: entered
into force: 19 May 1990. Amended 1993: entered into force: 20
February 1994.
1973International Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Flora and Fauna. Adopted: 3 March 1973; entered
into force: 1 July 1975: 12 ILM 1085.
1973/78International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
(MARPOL). Adopted: 2 November 1973:12 ILM 1319. Amended
(before entry into force) by Protocol of 17 February 1978; entered
into force: 2 October 1983: 17 ILM 546.
1974Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the
Baltic Sea Area. Adopted: 22 March 1974; entered into force: 3
May 1980: 13 ILM 546.
1976(77)Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage Resulting
from Exploration for and Exploitation of Seabed Mineral Resources.
Adopted: 17 December 1976 (opened for signature: 1 May 1977);
not in force: 16 ILM 1450.
1979Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
Adopted: 13 November 1979; entered into force: 16 March 1983: 18
ILM 1442. 1984 Protocol: entered into force: 28 January 1988:
24 ILM 484. 1985 Protocol: entered into force: 2 September 1987:
27 ILM 707. 1988 Protocol: entered into force: 14 February 1991: 27
ILM 698. 1991 Protocol: not in force: 31 ILM 568. 1994 Protocol:
not in force: 33 ILM 1540.
1979Agreement Concerning the Activities of States on the Moon and
Other Celestial Bodies (the Moon Treaty). Adopted: 5 December
1979; entered into force: 11 July 1984: 18 ILM 1434.
1980Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Re-
sources (CCAMLR). Adopted: 20 May 1980; entered into force: 7
April 1981: 19 ILM 841.
1982UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (LNCLOS). Adopted: 10
December 1982; entered into force: 16 November 1994: 21 ILM
1261.
1985Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. Adopted:
22 March 1985, entered into force: 22 September 1988: 26 ILM
1529. Amended by Montreal Protocol of 16 September 1987;
entered into force: 1 January 1989: 26 ILM 1550. Amended 1990;
entered into force: 10 August 1992: 30 ILM 539.
1986Single European Act. Adopted: 17 February 1986; entered into
force: 1 July 1987: 25 ILM 506.
1986Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the South Pacific Region
by Dumping. Adopted: 25 November 1986, entered into force: 18
August 1990: 26 ILM 38.
1988Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activ-
ities (CRAMRA). Adopted: 2 June 1988; not in force: 27 ILM 868.
1988Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the 1963 Vienna Con-
vention and the 1960 Paris Convention. Adopted: 21 September
1988; entered into force: 27 April 1992: International Transport
Treaties, VI-193.
1989Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Adopted: 22 March 1989;
entered into force: 5 May 1992: 28 ILM 657.
1989 International Convention on Salvage. Adopted: 28 April 1989;
entered into force: 14 July 1996: IMO/LEG/CONF.7/27 ( 1989).
1989Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused During Car-
riage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail and Inland Navigation
Vessels (CRTD). Adopted: 10 October 1989; not in force: Interna-
tional Transport Treaties IV-81.
1990International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response
and Co-operation. Adopted: 30 November 1990; entered into force:
13 May 1995: 30 ILM 735.
1991Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the
Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazard
ous Wastes within Africa. Adopted: 30 January 1991; not in force:
30 ILM 775.
1991Agreement between the United States and Canada on Air Quality
Signed and entered into force: 13 March 1991: 30 ILM 678.
1992Treaty on European Union. Adopted: 7 February 1992; entere
into force: 1 November 1993: 31 ILM 247.
1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Water
courses and International Lakes. Adopted: 17 March 1992; not in
force: 31 ILM 1312.
1992Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents
Adopted: 17 March 1992; not in force: 31 ILM 1330.
1992 Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the
Baltic Sea Area. Adopted: 9 April 1992; not in force: Diplo-
matic Conference on the Protection of the Marine Environment
of the Baltic Sea Area. Conference Document No. 4, Agend
Item 4.
1992Framework Convention on Climate Change. Adopted: 9 May 1992;
entered into force: 21 March 1994: 31 ILM 848.
1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. Adopted: 5 June 1992; entered
into force: 29 December 1993: 31 ILM 818.
1992Niuë Treaty on Co-operation in Fisheries Surveillance and Law
Enforcement in the South Pacific Region (South Pacific Forum
Fisheries Agency). Adopted: 9 July 1992; entered into force: 20
May 1993: 32 ILM 136.
1992Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the
North-East Atlantic. Adopted: 22 September 1992; not in force: 32
ILM 1069.
1993Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting From Activities
Dangerous to the Environment (Council of Europe). Adopted: 21
June 1993; not in force: 32 ILM 1228.
1993North American Agreement on Environmental Co-operation.
Adopted: 14 September 1993; entered into force: 1 January 1994:
32 ILM 1480.
1993Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conserva-
tion and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High
Seas (FAO). Adopted: 24 November 1993; not in force: 33 ILM
968.
1994Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock
Resources in the Central Bering Sea. Adopted: 16 June 1994;
entered into force: 8 December 1995: 34 ILM 67.
1994Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the 1982
UNCLOS. Adopted: 28 July 1994; provisionally in force since 6
November 1994: 33 ILM 1309.
1995Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the UN
Convention on the Law of the Sea Relating to the Conservation
and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory
Fish Stocks. Adopted: 4 August 1995; not in force: 34 ILM 1542.

-xiii-

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